|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 179-185
Investigation of present teaching performance assessment system problems and preposition of an appropriate model by technology: Sciences classrooms
Mostafa Ghaderi, Atefe Rigi, Jamal Salimi
Department of Education, University of Kurdistan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||27-Feb-2015|
Dr. Mostafa Ghaderi
Department of Education, University of Kurdistan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: This study aimed to compare teacher's' performance assessment via audio-video data with other Teaching assessment methods assessing teachers' performance is a challenge in many countries, today, assessment is considered a determinant of effective quality in education. The given importance of teachers' quality, top managers have always attended to assessing their performance in this study, Video data were investigated as a modern teaching method besides detecting present system problems in order to provide scientific evidence for a teachers' assessment method in the classroom. Methods: This case study utilized a qualitative approach. The required data were collected from videos recorded in four classrooms using semi-structured interviews. Target population included science teachers of junior high schools in Sanandaj, Iran, and eight science teachers video recording, and were selected as the a sample. Their remarks we are analyzed by inductive coding. Results: The following problems were cited by teachers as the main challenges of the present assessment method: (1) unskilled assessors (2) lack of suitable assessment criteria (3) lack of persistent assessment (4) discrimination and (5) uselessness of the results of assessment for teachers' professional development. Regarding the agreeability of video data for performance assessment, we reached two categories and subthemes: (a) the strengths of video data method: (1) cooperative assessment, (2) recruiting experts, (3) self-assessment, (4) comprehensive assessment, (5) transferability of the experience, (6) professional development of teachers, and (b) video data weaknesses: (1) artificial teaching, (2) fi increased stress (3) cost. Conclusion: Video data as a modern new way to evaluate teacher's' performance proved useful for evaluating the performance of teachers in the classroom in order to achieve the objectives of the performance Assessment system, and resolve the present problems.
Keywords: Performance evaluation, teachers, video data
|How to cite this article:|
Ghaderi M, Rigi A, Salimi J. Investigation of present teaching performance assessment system problems and preposition of an appropriate model by technology: Sciences classrooms. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:179-85
|How to cite this URL:|
Ghaderi M, Rigi A, Salimi J. Investigation of present teaching performance assessment system problems and preposition of an appropriate model by technology: Sciences classrooms. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jun 5];1:179-85. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/2/179/152257
| Introduction|| |
The purpose of this study was the comparison of teacher's performance assessment via video data with other teacher assessment systems. For most of the countries, teacher performance assessment has been changed to a challenge. Today, assessment is discussed as a determinant factor for teaching process efficiency. Regarding the great importance of teacher quality, the teacher performance assessment is continuously considered by chief-managers.
The assessment can be recruited as a catalyst in professional level to improve teaching methods in schools.  The main question is, we may enjoy the most effective teachers for student guiding, but they cannot be distinguished except with a suitable assessment system. 
Most of the expertises consider assessment as a tool, which informs individuals for their professional development. Assessment is recruited to diagnose, which individual's teaching aspect is good and which aspect must be changed.  The common assessment method is manager assesse teachers during the teaching process, recruiting students' opinions or roll calls which are classified in traditional assessment methods. In this study, besides detection of present system problems, recruiting of video data as a new method is investigated to obtain a teacher performance assessment in the classroom, which is scientific and attributable. Seidel et al.'s study titled (teacher learning on subject of class condition analysis by recruiting video: Is there any difference between what observed in his class or other's teaching?) showed teachers considered significant video analysis as a learning and professional development tools.  Guo in a study titled (ethnographic research for recruiting of video data to obtain professional teach development) concluded those teachers, who observed their teaching videos, recruited deeper feedback in teaching improvement process comparing other teachers, besides video data enable teachers to assess their teaching process and observe their teaching critically. 
| Methods|| |
This study as case control study enlisted qualitative approach. The required data are collected from videos, which recorded in four classrooms via semi-structured interview. Target population includes sciences teachers who teach at secondary level in Sanandaj Education while 8 sciences teachers who accepted video recording are selected as a sample. Their remarks are analyzed by apriority coding.
| Results|| |
Assessment is a tool which can be recruited for various requirements of employees and organizations. If this tool is properly designed and used can be considered as a good tool for encouraging, teaching, improvement and sometimes the employee punishment. In recent years, different methods are used for designing and employee performance implantation, while the efficiency of each method is studied comprehensively besides applying required reforms to each methods and experts are trying to improve the present assessment system, however most of teachers believe assessments have no benefits. Regarding to results of interviews in present study, some of problems and challenges for the available teacher performance assessment in teachers' perspective are:
Teachers' concern increase if the assessors do not have enough professional knowledge and ability or if assessment process is performed by those individuals who do not deliberately or inadvertently consider what they must consider or assessment criteria are not correct. In other word, the lack of professional human force for the assessment is among those problems which emphasized frequently by teachers.
Regarding to main task of teaching reform and improvement, developing and training of properties, encouraging research sprit, ongoing assessment, promotion of teachers and students performance, teaching leader superiority becomes more clear, especially those leaders who enjoy professional and career abilities, experience and the heights education level. 
One of interviewee perspective (code 2) is considerable: Collogues are mainly assessed by managers now, which has its own strengths and weaknesses. It is considered as a strength regarding academics year, but it is considered as a weakness regarding manager may not be skilled on subject of the course, which is taught by teacher, for example, sciences, so the scientific detail cannot be assessed properly.
Another teacher (code 5) believes: The teacher is sometimes assessed by questioners or students, which is not led to proper results, since their assessment criteria is their interest into teacher or the grade which is obtained, or assessment is performed by chief-manager who has no presence experience on target classroom, therefore cannot assess properly.
Regarding one of main objective for every assessment system is proposing of a suitable feedback to assess and improve his performance, so assessment system success relatively depends on assessor proficiency level. Considering the results of the interview, one of weakness of present assessment system is a lack of professional assessors.
Lack of suitable assessment criteria
To assess properly, all of the criteria and indicators, which are suitable on for assessment, must be detected and regarding to mentioned indicators, individuals must be assessed in a different position. Considering interview results, many of teachers believe no suitable criteria recruited.
One of teachers (code 3) remarking above mentioned subject, says: Assessment is not performed based on suitable standards while most of assessment clause are weak and do not make too much of a sense. In some training institution, rules are replaced by relationship, besides some assessment criteria have no correlation with training and teaching.
Another teacher (code 8) remarks: There is no distinguished standard for teacher assessment, everyone assesses based on his position and style. In-service courses are sometime held, which have scores for participants, though teachers may participate for the sake of score and have no interest in class presence. Percent of passing mean may be considered as assessment criteria, but teacher may increase grade levels which are not logical.
Especial information and indicators such as absence, the frequency of delay or workplace leaving (earlier) and unreasonable leaves can be considered among the best factors for teacher assessment but their impact can be recruited for promotion or discount rather and they have low impact on teacher performance improvement.
One teacher (code 1) remarks above mentioned and say: In preset system there are some strengths such as student acceptance in Olympiad or on time presence and leaving, but they do not improve the teaching process.
The training leader is someone who designs, implants and assess observational program and training guiding while have interactive relationships with other school employees (teachers, managers), so he must act based on rules, which are determined exactly. 
Lack of continuance assessment
One of the main principles for management and programing in organization is continuity principle in research and assessment to detect problems and challenges on time besides performing related feedback to remove them.  One of the problems with present assessment system, which leads to a partial sample for class observation can be the frequency and spent time for class observation were limited and limited sample cannot be generalized to whole teaching process, regarding results of teacher interview with teachers. Repeatability can be considered as a criterion for increasing accuracy in judgment to distribute an adjective to a nature or person. Stability is a very important indicator for judgment and assessment, while they must be greatly considered in those assessments, which results to a decision for teacher, since the results of several stations must be generalizable to all kind of teacher training, whereas in present system, very little time is assigned to assess teacher course class. Actually, the results of an assessment coordinate with following a remark.
A teacher (code 7) confirming above mentioned and expresses: The assessor spend very little time now, within the assessment process, each course chief-group spend 5 min for every class and laboratory. I think, teacher course class cannot be assessed deeply within this sot time.
Discrimination can be applied in various forms; discrimination is a sample of unequal behavior toward different groups in various backgrounds and in overall is in contradiction with human rights. Unfair assessment or without enough knowledge about individuals, discriminating between individuals within assessment bring anxiety and stress for organization members. Education organization of Iran is among those organizations, which are not expected. If a teacher feels hidden or clear discrimination on subject of carious background in his workplace or his trying is not enough encouraged or ignored which will bring anxiety and stress to him, this anxiety will be doubled if he observes those individuals are encouraged who are not deserved. This problem by its own nature reduces motivation and efficiency.
One of the teachers confirming above mentioned and says: Since when an individual places as a teacher, he must be perfect. In most cases, there are some teachers who not only do not behave ethically, but also have no familiarity with new and suitable teaching methods, however they obtain upper grades due to favoritism which exists in assessment department in Education organization which leads to reducing of teacher motivations.
Another teacher (code 1) believes School manager due to favoritism or target teacher complaint, organization persuasion or since he knows training or assessment department does not pay too much of attention to this grade, so in most cases does not attribute real numbers to teacher and usually give the highest possible grades to remove all complaints.
If training managers of society enjoy enough knowledge and skills and consider human relationships keeping while experience an interactive relationship to their subordinates to know all effective factors on education and school organizing, which can lead to reduction in discrimination stress, increasing teacher sprit, creating motivation for work and activities. In this case, they can bring to fact the organization objectives with less cost and better quality which leads to training system efficiency.
The results of the assessment are not useful for teacher professional development
Teacher assessment is a positive experience for both teacher and assessor if the assessment process is implanted properly besides creating a link between results and teacher professional development. Actually, the assessment is performed to inform teachers about their strengths and weaknesses to remove their defects and increase their professional development. In other word, the assessment teacher results must provide useful and required feedback about what teacher must learn. Most of the teachers believe assessment has no benefit for their future development because its results have no impact in the formation of their professional development programs. Therefore, linkage between assessment results and professional teacher development leads to increasing in teacher assessment efficiency.
A teacher confirming above mentioned and expresses: As student's examination results are delivered to them, it's better to deliver assessment and assessment form to teachers. In this case, they will be able to amplify their positive points and reform their negative points.
Another interviewee (code 7) expressed: During the assessment, the results are not clearly proposed to teachers. Assessment is not considered properly and sample teachers are sometimes appreciated by a letter of appreciation apparently while the other teacher weaknesses are not mentioned.
The teacher assessment methods are greatly variant while a lot of researchers are attracted to them. One of most useful method for performance assessment is recruiting audio and visual data regarding researcher's opinion. In this part, based on interviews results, we discussed video data agreeability for performance assessment in two categories and subsets:
The strengths video data method
Even the most efficient managers cannot perform professional development tasks due to complexity.  Though visual reflection relatively can leads to teaching improvement, but one of the biggest strength of video data is recruiting of cooperative assessment. In this research, the colleagues propose reason based on evidence. This feedback results to a proper teaching perception for teachers and reform their weaknesses regarding to suggestion.
One of the teachers (code 6) confirming above mentioned and says: In this method, since more than one person assess so leads to a reduction in biases and may indicate strengths and weaknesses better comparing to prior.
Recruiting of experts
In video data method, some colleague is asked to express their opinions to assess teacher course class films which are a main strength of video data assessment. Since teacher performance assessment can create a proper imagination from teaching process regarding experts' opinions which leads to increasing of motivation, more movement and dynamism.
One of the teachers (code 1) confirming above mentioned and says: Recruiting of expert colleague to perform assessment process in this method is very good. When I know those people who criticize me are educated, award and expert individuals so I try more to apply their suggestions.
Cognitive self-reflection and self-assessment can be defined as thinking about teaching and learning.  One of the most effective assessment procedures for teaching quality is self-assessment. The results of teacher interviews indicate self-assessment as one of the video data strength.
One of teachers (code 5) remarking above mentioned and says: In this method, the teacher observes his film without reporting by a third person, he is able to assess his film. If the teacher asked to say how he can change his teaching method is very useful.
Another teacher (code 3) believes: Video results to consider our voice and control modulation voice in the following classes, as well provides us an opportunity to assess our teaching critically which is considered as a strength for this method.
One of the video data privileges is portraying of all things which occur during class perceptibly, while other method cannot provide such a facility. Subjects such as teacher behavior with students, appearance, recruited sentences and words, assigned time for practicing, student orientation or teacher orientation? How much is the extent of motivation creating in students? Is the teacher holistic or detailed? Does he know the skills which are based on technology and class management? Etc.
A teacher (code 6) confirming above mentioned and believes: All teacher motion and activities can be recorded via video. Besides all teacher work aspects regarding class running, proposition of topics during teaching, physical space of classroom, recruiting of learning aids statue, student grouping during teaching and teacher attention to individual differences of students can be assessed via video data assessment.
Regarding increasing science development and time limitation, the human cannot be mastered in all subjects. However, he is able to use other's experiences without experiencing of all things by himself. One of strength of video data bringing an opportunity for other teachers to observe and recruit in their class those creativities, which are used by other colleagues. In other words, video data not only provide an assessment method, but also provide some training aspects for assessors.
A teacher confirming (code 2) above mentioned and says: I consider this method completely positive because this method enables us to experience a live and dynamic exchange between teachers rather than assessment discussion.
Another teacher (code 5) believes: Certainly, observing other teacher teaching and comparing it with ours, we can learn a lot of things.
Professional teacher development
Since the only assessment method which directly provide feedback for teacher after classroom's film observation, besides the mentioned suggestions are provided by experts, therefore if teacher recruits their suggestion may improve professional teacher development.
One of the teachers (code 1) confirming above mentioned and believes: In this method, teacher information can be increased by observing of different teaching solutions which are provided by other teachers.
Video data weaknesses
As we know, assessment must be performed in a condition which is not led to artificial teaching. One of the video data defections increasing of artificial teaching during video and voice recording regarding interview results. In other word, they may act in a form which may not act in such condition naturally. Of course, if this method recruited continuously, can be performed naturally and considered as a motivation for more trying and improve the teaching process.
One of the teachers (code 1) confirming above mentioned and believe: One of negative specific of video data for assessment was artificial behavior. If a solution which removes this problem was founded, this method could be relatively useful.
Job stress is a stress that links to individual workplace or related factors. Changing in work activities such as new technology or changing in objectives may become stressful. Control and assessment by its nature are stressful and if they are along with a new kind of technology which is unfamiliar for teacher leads to strong reduction in teacher performance while the real teacher performance cannot be assessed. The interview results showed one of defection for assessment data which is based on video is increasing of stress during teaching.
One of the teachers (code 3) confirming above mentioned and believes: The teacher may act the best but since he is being recorded, the unconscious stress may act vice versa.
Since the assigned cost for schools is limited while training managers try to use this cost for promoting of school training facilities such as projectors, computer and laboratory instruments and etc., most of the schools cannot afford a camera regarding high price of video camera. Based on performed interviews, most of the teachers exclaimed recruiting of this technology brings high costs for schools, so most of managers may dismissed it which can be considered as a defection for this method.
One of the teachers (code 4) confirming above mentioned and exclaims: Most of the school have no unique computer per classrooms. The camera cost can be spent somewhere else. If it were cheaper, camera recruiting would be easier.
| Discussion|| |
The interview results show there are a lot of problems in teacher performance assessment system which prevent from its successful implantation. One of the assessment system defections in education organization is unskilled training assessors regarding research results. Based on interviewee remarks, unqualified assessors are concluded. This result is in line with. Gheragouzlou's study (1986) showed teachers consider observers without required quality on the subject of course topics, professional knowledge, and assessment. 
Another problem in in available assessment system is a lack of suitable value and criteria for assessment. Clear and proper criteria are required for every kind of assessment to obtain right results, which indicates the extent of achieved objectives. The results of this research are in line with Tomas Jei's results (1992) which showed systematic changes are not possible except a series of agreements, which are held between teachers and observers. Common values between observer and teacher have the main roll in those school reforms, which lead to performance improvement. 
Another problem teaching assessment system is a lack of ongoing observation and assessment which are referred in interviews too. The results of this research coordinate with Nolan's (1993) research which indicates observation process will be effective if it is performed continuously. 
Another problem for present assessment system is discrimination in Education organization which leads to unfair assessment results. In other word, discrimination is an obvious form of injustice which results to very destructive impacts on the work sprit of official and training employees. Therefore, stress can be prevented by fair assessment and considering teacher activities, in overall leads to employee performance improvement. The results of this research coordinate with Tebiyan's results which indicates personal judgment involving of assessors and emotional involvement in assessment process resulted to the assessed individuals have no good insight in assessment performance while consider it doubtfully and mainly protest to results. 
The last problem with teacher performance assessment is lack of beneficiary in assessment results for professional teacher development, which is referred in interviews. The findings, which are resulted of teacher interviews, indicates not only scientific and suitable methods are not recruited in present assessment system, but also no feedback offered to teachers while present feedbacks are not useful.
Does video data coordinate with present teacher performance assessment system in the classroom in teachers' perspective? Some interviews are performed in line with above mention question which resulted a series of strengths and weaknesses in video data assessment method while recruiting of them lead to an answer for mentioned question. One of the strengths of this method is recruiting of experts regarding interviewees. The results of this research coordinate with results of Wuc and Kao which based on those colleague assessments which enjoy some opinions set were enough confident and useful. 
Teacher self-assessment is considered as strength for video data method regarding achieved results. The teacher himself tries to record his performance and then recruit it as a tool for performance self-criticism.  The results of the present study coordinate with results of Seidel et al. is consistent. 
Strength for this method is a comprehensive assessment of classroom in this method regarding performed interviews. This method privilege is providing us absolute objective information while reminds us what we said and what we did. How much time is spent on this topic? How much time is spent for questioning?  The comprehensive assessment is among those subjects which are not considered by interviewees while other results have not considered.
The results showed one of the strengths of video data method is helping to professional teacher development. This method provides an opportunity for scientific discussion and consultation for that teacher who teaches courses with similar background. Video enables to uniquely seize fulfillment and class complexity while increasingly recruited for practicing of professional teacher development and further analysis.  Regarding this subject whether video can lead to professional teacher development or not, the results of this research coordinate with results of Seidel et al. indicates participated teacher considered video analysis as a significant tool for learning and profession development. 
Since assessment of teacher performance in classroom is done to distinguish strengths and weaknesses as well teaching improvement and agreeable teaching can significantly affect scientific and characteristic aspects of students, therefore, this kind of assessment is classified among most complex assessments. Cooperative assessment is strength for video data method which is referred by interviewees and has not been considered in other researches.
In addition to its strength, this method has its own weaknesses regarding interviewees' perspective. Teacher may behave in a way which they do not behave naturally regarding recording process of teaching.  Ongoing assessment which is mentioned as a shortage for present assessment system if it is not kept, recruited properly for video data method can relatively remove artificiality problem of this method, which finally make it an unusual method like other kind of assessment. One of the weaknesses which are resulted in this research is artificiality which has not been considered in other research.
Stress and anxiety are among those factors which can lead to a reduction in personal performance significantly, besides interviewees remarked them as a weakness. Regarding objective nature of recording, it can leads to increasing of stress. Increasing of stress is among those factors which have not been considered in prior researches.
Regarding financial problems which involve education, providing and purchasing of instruments with high prices is not possible for most of the schools. One of the difficulties with video data is financial problems. Video data method is costly and considered as a weakness for this method while has not been considered in prior researches. 
It seems the present system concentration and further consideration to technical-training aspects leads to some problems in teacher performance assessment system. These problems are mention in teachers' interviews.
In the present study, the researcher aims to introduce video data method as a method which has not been recruited up to now and regarding to strengths which are remarked by sample individuals, can relatively lead to reduction in present teacher performance assessment system. In other word, Managers and assessor can recruit this method remove discrimination problem regarding distributions of cooperative assessment and self-assessment, lack of beneficiary of results for professional teacher development can be solved by recruiting of increasing in professional development and experience transferability, while recruiting of expert individual can solve unskilled assessor problem, lack of proper criteria in present assessment system.
Ongoing assessment for detecting of problems, recruiting experts' knowledge, providing in-service training course, increasing assigned credit volume to schools to provide instruments like video camera must be performed to recruit video data method strengths and removing present assessment system weaknesses and neutralizing of video data method weaknesses.
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