|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 80-86
The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment: A case study of female teachers
Kamal Naghipour1, Hasan Galavandi2, Masumeh Alizadeh2, Motadaien Ebrahim2
1 Department of Educational Science, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Educational Administration Sciences, University of Uremia, Uremia, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||27-Feb-2015|
Dr. Hasan Galavandi
Department of Educational Sciences, University of Uremia, Uremia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment of female teachers in Iran. Methodology: One hundred fourteen female teachers were randomly selected using descriptive-correlational method. For data gathering, the Colquitt's Organizational Justice Questionnaire and May-Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were used. The validity of the questionnaires was verified according to the viewpoints of experts in educational sciences and management. The reliability of the questionnaires estimated using Cronbach's α coefficient in a primary study on a 30-people sample, organizational justice questionnaire α =0.913 as well as Organizational Commitment Questionnaire α =0.924. After data gathering, they were analyzed based on research hypotheses using multivariate analysis of variance as well as multiple regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between all components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment. In addition, there is a significant predictive relationship among procedural justice, interactional justice, and distributive justice with continuous commitment and normative commitment. Conclusion: According to the theory of equity, it can be predicted that the personnel reacts toward the presence or absence of organizational justice at workplace. The increase of attachment and dependence is one of such reactions. That is, if the personnel witness that justice is not observed in the organization, they will feel some sort of tension, and therefore, they try to reduce their own dependency and commitment to the organization. In such cases, their organizational commitment may be diminished. Conversely, if they feel that organizational justice exists in the organization, they will be motivated to embrace more duties, tasks, and responsibilities so that, thereby, they would fulfill their debts to their career and consequently their organizational commitment would be increased.
Keywords: Female teachers, organizational commitment, perceived organizational justice
|How to cite this article:|
Naghipour K, Galavandi H, Alizadeh M, Ebrahim M. The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment: A case study of female teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:80-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Naghipour K, Galavandi H, Alizadeh M, Ebrahim M. The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment: A case study of female teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Feb 21];1:80-6. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/2/80/152219
| Introduction|| |
The theorists of cognitive sciences identify treatment as a function of beliefs, expectations, values, and other subjective perceptions of human. In other words, treatment is due to human's conscious and rational choice. The theory of equity is one of the cognitive theories of job motivation based on the assumption that employees' perceptions are the key to understand their motivation.  The organization is a social system whose existence and stability are dependent on a strong link between its components and constituents. The perception of injustice leads to devastating effects on the spirit of collective work because it circumscribes the efforts of human resources as well as the motivation of personnel. In justice and unfair distribution of organization's achievements will demoralize the personnel and downscale their spirit of quest and activity. Therefore, observing justice is the key to survival and stability of development and progress flow of the organization as well as personnel. 
Hence, one of the major responsibilities of management is to preserve and develop fair treatments among managers and sense of justice among the personnel. Observing justice, especially in some of the treatments of management toward personnel (rewards distribution, political relationships, promotions, and designations) are important issues for personnel. In the process of development of fair treatments and more importantly, the formation of sense of justice in personnel, recognition of how justice-based treatments manipulate organizational treatments including organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors, etc., are important. ,
If the managers of the organization are seeking progress and improvement in the organization, they must be able to establish among the personnel the perception of existence of justice in their organization.
In this section, the concepts of organizational justice and organizational commitment are briefly introduced through analysis of previous studies.
Justice is one of the factors of integration in social institutions. Organizational justice and its various scopes are predictors of most organizational variables. Justice in organization indicates the employees' perceptions of fair treatment in the work which leads to the identification of several different components of justice in the organization: Distributive justice, procedural justice, interactional justice. The researchers in their recent studies have divided interactional justice into two different components of interpersonal justice and informational justice. ,,
During the last decade of the twentieth century, the attentions of scholars and researchers have been mostly oriented toward organizational justice as an important concept and the main research topic in industrial and organizational psychology. Justice in an organization indicates equity and consideration on ethical behavior in an organization. Organizational justice is associated with the vital processes of the organization, such as commitment and performance. ,, According to available research facts, at least three types of justice have been so far accepted by scholars and researchers of this field. ,
Distributive justice and its components
It refers to personnel attitudes and insights concerning suitability of their achievements and gains.  Distributive justice is predicted according to the values. 
Researchers are of the same opinion that organizational efficiency is the outcome of distributive justice.  In other words, distributive justice reflects the individual's perception of the level of justice observation in distribution and allocation of resources and rewards.  Three axioms are considered in distributive justice: (1) Equity: Every member of a social group receives the same outcome, (2) need: The neediest person receives the highest rate of compensation, (3) justice and fairness: Fair compensation is carried out based on the share or inputs of any of people. ,
Procedural justice and its components
It was presented subsequently to prove the failure of the theory of equity and other models of distributive justice in describing the reactions toward their perceptions of injustice. This type of justice refers to perceived fairness of procedures and processes through which consequences will be designated. , Procedural Justice refers to fairness of the procedures used to determine career implications.  Theory of procedural justice seeks to find fair or unfair reasons of procedures or their effects by people.  According to some studies, only those procedures which are consistent with the following rules are considered fair by people: (1) They should not be inconsistent with each other; (2) they should not be biased; (3) they should be accurate; (4) they should be amendable; (5) they should reflect the views of all stakeholders; (6) they should be based on ethical standards. 
Interactional justice and its components
It is defined based on the perceived fairness of interpersonal relations associated with organizational procedures and the quality of interpersonal relations as well as organizational treatment which is coupled with respect. , A variety of empirical studies demonstrate that: (1) People distinguish fairness of formal procedures from the fairness of personal interactions (2) interactional justice affects personnel's various attitudes and behaviors. 
Some studies have relied on the elements of the personnel's empathy, courtesy, and effort as interactional justice elements.  Department of Education, and educational organizations and institutions are among the responsible organizations for scientific, cultural, and educational activities of the children in this society. Therefore, further research should be conducted on the perceptional and behavioral issues.
Personal behavior of personnel is analyzed according to four factors of attitude, personality, perception, and learning. Therefore, it seems to be essential for the managers to be aware of the personnel's attitudes in the related fields of organization exertion. According to studies, three major attitudes of job satisfaction, professional dependency, and organizational commitment have attracted the most attention, and among them, during the last two decades, organizational commitment is the dominant approach which is taken into consideration by researchers and has been the subject of many meta-analyses. 
There is no consensus among researchers about the definition of organizational commitment.  Although different definitions of organizational commitment are found within the research literature, each of which reflects one of the three general subjects of emotional affection, perception of costs and sense of responsibility.  Thus, organizational commitment is the relative degree of identification of individual's identity with a specific organization and their involvement and cooperation with that organization. In this definition, organizational commitment includes three factors: (1) Strong belief in the goals and values of organization; (2) willingness to place remarkable efforts for the sake of organization, (3) strong and deep desire to carry on membership in organization ,,, have divided organizational commitment into the following three dimensions:
It is the very emotional affection of the personnel to the organization which is due to their satisfaction with the organization and their willingness to stay there. The personnel with a high affect commitment stay in the organization, because they would like to do so.
It refers to personnel's level of understanding of the fact that quitting the organization is costly. The personnel with high continuous commitment continues to work in the organization because they believe that they need to do so.
It refers to personnel's sense of compulsion and obligation to stay in the organization and their belief that staying in the organization is the right thing to do. The personnel with high normative commitment keeps on working in the organization because they believe they should do so. ,,,
The results of meta-analyses demonstrate that some variables that seem to have an impact on the affect commitment are related to normative commitment, but the relationships are much weaker. There is also some evidence showing that the effect of work experiences on the normative commitment depends on the personnel's cultural values such as individualism versus collectivism.  Given that the researchers in this study intend to examine the relationship between the components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment, the research hypotheses are presented as follows.
The relationship between the components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment, job satisfaction, organizational performance, etc., is examined in numerous national and international studies.
Jahromi et al.  reported that there is a significant positive relationship between the components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment, job satisfaction. Furthermore, the components of the organizational justice have a significant predictive relationship with the aspects of organizational commitment.
According to a research conducted by Maryam et al.,  there is a significant predictive relationship between the components of organizational justice (distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice) and the emotional aspects of organizational commitment (affective, continuous, and normative).
The results of a research conducted by Arizi et al. illustrate that there is a significant relationship between distributive justice and task and field performance. In addition, the relationship between justice and performance has been significant for women but not for men.
According to a research conducted by Reza and Mohsen,  the analysis of the data collected by multivariate regression analysis test showed that distributive, procedural, and interactional justice have a significant predictive relationship with continuous, affective and normative commitment.
In a research conducted in Agricultural Jihad Organization and Department of Education in Qom, Hussein et al.,  reported a positive and significant relationship between trust and organizational commitment of personnel in both organizations.
In a research conducted among the personnel of Gas Company at the headquarters of Khorasan Province, Hussein and Roghieh,  reported that the organizational justice is considered the most important and determinant factor which directly and positively affect the level of organizational commitment.
According to a research conducted by Ali and Mehdi,  the results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational commitment and moral behavior in the organization, and that organizational commitment has a positive impact on the moral behavior.
Some research have demonstrated that organizational justice and its components are considered as predictors of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. ,,
Buswell and Bourdreau  examined the relationship between organizational justice and performance of self-report and found a significant relationship between job performance and procedural justice as well as distributive justice. In a meta-analysis of the role of organizational justice, Cohen and Spector  reported that job performance and counterproductive behavior are among the implications of organizational justice, especially procedural justice.
Sharlicki  concluded that organizational justice and fairness are predictors of organizational outputs and are positively associated with loyalty, commitment and extra-role behaviors of personnel. In their study, Vieswesvaran and Ones  found out that the relationship between procedural justice and organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and productivity is stronger than the relationship between distributive justice and this variable. They also recognized that the relationships between distributive justice and job attitudes and treatments would be moderated by procedural justice perceptions.
In their own study, Krause et al.  reported that there is a positive relationship between the development of suppliers, organizational commitment, social capital and performance improvement and that organizational commitment and social capital can be strong predictors for the organizational performance.
Considering the importance of the research topic in education, it is worthy of several studies conducted in this field and similar areas. For example, the role of organizational justice on administrative attitudes and treatment of the personnel of the education department, especially women, who are considered a major part of the education, can be reviewed.
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of affect commitment
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of continuous commitment
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of normative commitment.
| Methodology|| |
The research method of this study is descriptive correlational. The statistical population include all female teachers in girls' school of the city of Naghadeh and 114 of them were randomly selected using the simple random sampling method as sample for the study.
The data required for this study are collected through two questionnaires as follows:
- Organizational justice questionnaire: Colquitt's Organizational Justice Questionnaire  is used in the study. This questionnaire contains distributive justice (questions 1-5), procedural justice (questions 6-10), and interactional justice (questions 11-18). The questionnaire contains 18 items and measures the perceived organizational justice separately with the use of 5° Likert scale. The reliability of this questionnaire is reported α =0.913.
The results of factorial analysis of the organizational justice questionnaire obtained three desired components in which 0.62% of the questions variance was extracted. The tests Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) =0.900 and Bartlett test (P > 0.0001) showed that the sample size is adequate, and the intended factors exist in the society. The results of the factorial loads which are higher than 0.3 with orthogonal rotation, obtained the three desired components.
- Organizational Commitment Questionnaire: Mayer Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire  is used in this study. This questionnaire includes affect commitment (questions 1-8), continuous commitment (questions 9-16), and normative commitment (questions 17 and 23). This questionnaire contains 23 items and measures organizational justice using 5° Likert scale. The reliability of the questionnaire is reported α =0.924.
The results of the factorial analysis of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire obtained three desired aspects in which 0.73% of the questions variance was extracted. The tests KMO = 0.910 and Bartlett test (P > 0.0001) indicated that the sample size is adequate, and the intended factors exist in the population. The results of the factorial loads which are higher than 0.3 with orthogonal rotation obtained the three desired components.
| Results|| |
The results of the study are investigated in the context of the proposed hypotheses:
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of the organizational commitment.
F coefficients in [Table 1] indicate that there is a significant relationship between distributive justice and the aspects of the organizational commitment (P = 0.01) and the corporation level is 0.07. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship between procedural justice and the aspects of the organizational commitment (P = 0.0001) and the corporation level is 0.42. Moreover, there is a significant relationship between interactional justice and the aspects of the organizational commitment (P = 0.0001), and the corporation level is 0.89. The statistical power is equal to (0.87, 0.99, and 0.99), which indicates the adequacy of sample size for hypotheses testing.
|Table 1: MANOVA analysis of the relationship between each of the components of perceived organizational justice and the aspects of the organizational commitment|
Click here to view
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and affect commitment.
According to the results of [Table 2], the value of test statistics for examination of the relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and affect commitment is 11.28 and is significant at the level of P = 0.0001. The value of R2 indicates that 0.24% of the variance of affect commitment is explained by the components of organizational justice. Furthermore, studying the regression coefficients indicates that the distributive justice subscale (β =0.29) can predict positively the affect commitment.
|Table 2: The results of multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between each of the components of organizational justice and affect commitment|
Click here to view
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and continuous commitment.
According to the results of [Table 3], the value of test statistics for examination of the relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and continuous commitment is 5.24 and is significant at the level of P = 0.001. The value of R2 indicates that 0.13% of the variance of continuous commitment is explained by the components of organizational justice. Furthermore, studying the regression coefficients indicates that the procedural justice subscale (β =0.34) can predict positively the continuous commitment.
|Table 3: The results of multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between each of the components of organizational justice and continuous commitment|
Click here to view
- There is a relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and normative commitment.
According to the results of [Table 4], the value of test statistics for examination of the relationship between the components of perceived organizational justice and normative commitment is 375.29 and is significant at the level of P = 0.0001. The value of R2 indicates that 0.91% of the variance of normative commitment is explained by the components of organizational justice. Furthermore, studying the regression coefficients indicates that the procedural justice subscale (β =0.39) can predict positively the normative commitment.
|Table 4: The results of multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between each of the components of organizational justice and normative commitment|
Click here to view
| Discussion and Conclusion|| |
The relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment is a relatively new subject which is investigated in this study. The results of study suggest that general organizational justice and its components have a significant positive correlation with different aspects of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuous commitment), which are illustrated in Tables in this study. The results are consistent with the studies mentioned in the research literature. These results are particularly consistent with the results of the studies conducted by Kumar et al.,  Vieswesvaran and Ones,  and Maryam et al.  In most of the conducted studies, the important role of the organizational justice is considered and the managers of the organizations, especially educational managers, are required to consider this important variable.
According to the results of study in [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], there is a significant predictive relationship among distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice, and the aspects of organizational commitment (affective, continuous, and normative commitment). The results are consistent with the studies conducted by Jahromi et al.  Reza and Mohsen,  Kumar et al.  Yang et al.  When the personnel perceive that the amount of salary and job plan is fair, before making work decisions, all concerns of the personnel are regarded by the management, and detailed and full information are provided in relation to the decisions made for the personnel. The decisions made about their jobs would be viewed with trust and respect. The director treats the personnel with human dignity and mutual respect and avoids inappropriate comments about the personnel and is honest in his/her relationship with them. Such behaviors will lead to personnel's belief and loyalty to the organization, not leaving the organization, regarding the problems of the organization as their own problems, more adjustment with the organizations, continuing the work and duty, having accountability and responsibility and spending extra effort and energy to achieve the goals of organization.
According to the theory of equity, it can be predicted that the personnel react toward the presence or absence of organizational justice at workplace. As Reza and Mohsen  have mentioned it, and they believe that the increase of attachment and dependence is one of such reactions. That is, if the personnel witness that justice is not observed in the organization, they will feel some sort of tension, and therefore they try to reduce their own dependency and commitment to the organization. In such cases, their organizational commitment may be diminished. Conversely, if they feel that organizational justice exists in the organization, they will be motivated to embrace more duties, tasks and responsibilities so that, thereby, they would fulfill their debts to their career and consequently their organizational commitment would be increased.
| References|| |
Maryam Y, Sakineh SN, Abolghasem K, Hasan G, Mohsen N, Fatemeh R. The relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment among the personnel of the selected hospitals by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Sci Res J Health Manag 2009;12:25-32.
Reza GM, Mohsen G. Examining the relationship between the components of organizational justice and organizational commitment among the personnel of Isfahan Municipality. Psychol Stud J 2009;5:129-48.
Reza SJ, Mehdi FM, Ghazale TA. Identification of how organizational justice dimensions affect the various aspects of job and organizational satisfaction. J Bus Manage 2009;1:55-70.
Mohsen G, Arezu A. The relationship between fair organizational beliefs and team integration, team respect, participation in decision making, role conflict, organizational communications and job satisfaction. J Humanit Manage Sci 2008;70:27-57.
Ameneh A. A study on Organizational Justice and Work Commitment and Job Dependency Among the Personnel of Isfahan Education Department, M.A. Thesis, University of Isfahan; 2010.
Hossein Z, Ali Akbar SF, Sryed Mohamad M. A study of relationship between organizationa justice and job satisfaction among teachers in Bandar Abbas middle school, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2010;5:1986-90.
Hamid RM, Akram HM, Iman A. Examining the relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior (A Case Study: Oil Refining and Distribution Company). Dev Manage Res Bull 2009;2:65-89.
Colquitt JA. On the dimensionality of organizational justice: A construct validation of a measure. J Appl Psychol 2001;86:386-400.
Wong T, Hang YN, Wong CS. Perceived organizational justice trust and OCB: A study of Chinese workers in joint ventures and state - Owned enterprises. J World Bus 2006;41:344-55.
Ali NM, Mohsen G. Cultural values and fairness: Organizational justice, job satisfaction and desertion. J Cultur Stud 2010;3:207-28.
James BD. The effect of organizational justice perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on marketing employess level of trust. J Bus Res 2010;63:1349-55.
Ambrose ML, Arnaud A. Are procedural justice and distributive justice conceptually distinct. Handbook of Organizational Justice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence; 2005. p. 85-112.
Mohyeldin A, Tahir S. Links between justice satisfaction and performance in the workplace. J Manage Dev 2007;26:294-311.
Ali R. Expectation of equity and justice in the organization. Tehran: SAMT Publications; 2005.
Homburg C, Furst A, Koschate N. On the importance of complaint handling design: Amulti - Level analysis of the impact in specific complaint situations. J Acad Mark Sci 2010;38:265-86.
Karatepe OM. Customer complaints and organizational responses: The effect of complaints perceptions of justice on satisfaction and loyalty, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2006;25:69-90.
Abdolzahra N, Hussein S. Examining the simple multiple relationship of organizational justice with the job satisfaction of the personnel of an industrial company, Journal of Educational and Psychological sciences, 2004;3:57-70.
George JM, Jonse GR. Understanding and Managing Organization Behaviour. Cali: Addison Wesley; 1999.
Eberlin R, Tatum CB. Making justice decisions: Organizational justice ¡decision making and leadership. Manage Decis 2008;46:310-29.
Bies RJ. Interactional justice: The sacred and the profaning. In: Greenberg J, Cropanzano R, editors. Advance in Organizational Justice. Standford California: Standford University; 2001.
Mehdi K, Yahiya BN. Conceived justice by service restoration and its impact on the customer's trust in national air travel agencies, Development Management Research Bulletin, Second Year,2010;3;179-202.
Wast SA. Commitment profiles: Combinations of organizational commitment forms and job outcomes. J Vocat Behav 2005;67:290-308.
Shaw JD, Delery JE, Mohamed H, Abdulla A. Organizational commitment and performance among guest workers and citizens of an Arab country. J Bus 2003;56:1021-30.
Ali R, Abdolali K. Examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment. Manage Message 2008;27:27-39.
Reza MA, Akbar H, Mohammed H. Examining the relationship between personnels empowerment and organizational commitment in 19 districts of Tehran Education Department. J Public Manage 2009;1:119-32.
Reza R. Examining the relationship between personnel's empowerment through job satisfaction, job stress, and organizational commitment. Manage Message 2005;16:165-94.
Mahdi TP, Farshad E. Examining the relationship between organizational commitment and job dependency and comparing it among physical education male teachers in seven districts of the schools of Mashhad. Res Sport Sci J 2007;12:15-32.
Akroyd D, Legg J, Jackowski MB, Adams RD. The impact of selected organizational variables and managerial leadership on radiation therapists organizational commitmen. Radiography 2009;15:113-20.
Meyer JP, Allen NJ. A three - Component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Hum Resour Manage Rev 1991;1:61-89.
Reihaneh S, Mohammad Reza Z,Masood A, Farzaneh M. The consequencesof organizational commitment in education. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2011;15:246-50.
Handlon RL. The Departure of the Insurance Agent: The Impact Organizational Commitment Organizational Justice¡ and job Satisfaction have an Intent to leave in the Insurance Industry Ph.D. Dissertation Capalla University; 2009.
Makanjee CR, Hartzer YF, Uys IL. The effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers. Radiography 2006;12:118e-26.
Somayeh S. Examining the Relationship Between the Characteristics of Managers' Servant Leadership and Organizational Commitment, M.A. Thesis, University of Isfahan; 2010.
Shapour AJ. Moslem S, Javad I. The Relationship of organizational justice and organizational commitment with job satisfaction among teachers in Exceptional Children Schools in Bandar Abbas. J Educ Sci 2009;5:7-32.
Hamid Reza A, Hajr B, Abolghasem N. simple multiple relationship between organizational justice and job performance in Isfahan Steel Company, Management Prospective Journal, 2009;33:9-28.
Hussein K, Mohammed MS, Reza JG, Nafiseh Z. Examining the relationship between components of personnel's trust and organizational commitment in Agricultural Jihad Organization and Department of Education in Qom. J Public Adm 2009;1:3-18.
Hussein B, Roghieh S. The factors affecting organizational commitment of the studied personnel samples of Gas Company: Headquarters of Khorasan Razavi province, city of Mashhad. J Soc Sci Facu Lit Humanit 2009;2:181-99.
Ali B, Mehdi JK. Examining the consequences of organizational moral values through studying organizational justice, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Hum Dev Police 2010;28:95-118.
Kumar K, Bakhshi A, Rani E. Organizational justice perceptions as predictor of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. IUP J Manage Res 2009;8:24-37.
Yang J, Mossholder KW, Peng TK. Supervisory procedural justice effect: The mediating roles of cognitive and affective trust. Leadersh Q 2009;20:143-54.
Khan S, Mukhtar S, Niazi MA. Link between organizational justice and employee job performance in the work place. Interdiscip J Contemp Res Bus 2010;2:121-32.
Buswell W, Bourdreau J. Employee Satisfaction with Performance Appraisers: The Role of Perceived Appraisal use, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 2000;11:383-299.
Cohen CY, Spector PE. The role ofjustice in organization: A mata-analysis. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 2007;86:278-321.
Sharlicki DD. Cross cultural perspective of organizational justice. Int J Confl Manage 2001;12:292-300.
Viswesvaran C, Ones DS. Job Performance: Assessment issues in personal selection, Handbook of personal selection Malden, M.A: Blackwell,2002.
Krause DR, Handfild RB, Tyler BB. The relationship between supplier development commitment social accumulation and performance improvement. J Oper Manag 2007;25:528-45.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]