|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 207-211
Job characteristic perception in medical record staff of training hospitals
Sakineh Saghaiyannejad1, Sedighe Torki2, Susan Bahrami3, Elahe Khorasani4
1 Department of Health Information Technology and Management, Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Medical Record, Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Department of Educational Administration, Health Information Technology and Management Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Pharmaceutical Administration, School of Pharmacy, Student's Scientific Research Center, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran; Department of Health care Management, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||8-Jun-2015|
Department of Medical Record, Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord
Source of Support: This paper is derived from MSc thesis in Isfahan
University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran., Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Motivating human resources is one of paramount objectives in realizing the importance of an organization. Every job containing some specific characteristics can be motivating. Thus, by identifying characteristics of each job as well as job enrichment as an organizational interference planned, steps can be taken toward rebuilding the jobs aiming at making them challenging, motivating, and satisfying. The present study aimed to determine job characteristic perception mean in medical record staff of training hospitals in Isfahan in 2012. Methods: The type of the study is descriptive survey. The population includes all the medical record staff working in medical record departments in the training hospitals of Isfahan. One hundred twenty seven subjects were selected by conducting a census. Data collected by using questionnaire of job characteristics devised by Hackman and Oldeham. Content validity was confirmed by experts and its reliability was calculated through the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (r1 = 0.84). The completed questionnaires were entered into SPSS (18) software; furthermore, statistical analysis was performed descriptively and inferentially (MANOVA, least significant difference). Results: Job characteristics scores mean and its elements (variety of skills, job identity, job significance, independence, and feedback) were higher than the average level. No significant difference was noticed among mean amounts of job characteristic perception according to age, gender, education, and type of educational degree in hospitals. However, there was a significant difference among mean amounts of job characteristic perception according to unit of service and years of service in hospitals. Conclusion: Findings show that all job characteristic aspects score was higher than average level and job significance perception score was higher than other aspects. As job characteristics have a great role in changing intrinsic motivation level in staff, it is suggested that different jobs in medical record department be devised in a way that staff, with intrinsic motivation and enthusiasm, step toward achieving job objectives and main goals of health system.
Keywords: Hospital, job characteristic perception, staff
|How to cite this article:|
Saghaiyannejad S, Torki S, Bahrami S, Khorasani E. Job characteristic perception in medical record staff of training hospitals. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:207-11
|How to cite this URL:|
Saghaiyannejad S, Torki S, Bahrami S, Khorasani E. Job characteristic perception in medical record staff of training hospitals. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 22];1:207-11. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/3/207/158327
| Introduction|| |
Human resources are one of the most important factors effective on success and failure of a social system. These human resources are guarantee of survival, effective factor, and secret of success of a system. This factor can waste, destroy or flourish physical and material resources. Writers know human motive as his driving element, motion, and mutation force, and believe that in every success 20% effort and 80% motivation is effective.  One of the main issues in human relationship is considering areas to make motivation in human resources.  When human doesn't like his job and his job doesn't make motivation for him, the job would be boring and impossible to continue. , Perhaps it could be said that the biggest problem in today organizations and the challenge, which our managers are faced with is staff's lack of motivation and loss of accountability. Motiveless staff destroys the best programs, the most effective structures, and resources. 
Traditional management knows maternal factors as the only way to make motivation; neoclassic management suggests having social relationships and paying attention to staff to make motivation.
Next management theories also presented some ways that the feature of most of them was considering external factors as motivating factor. Another group of management theorists paid attention to the job, and hencethat the work can itself have strong effect on staff's motivation, satisfaction, and efficiency and people cannot ignore their social and emotional needs when they are working and it presents a solution, which its aim is less support of external motivations and instead paying attention to internal motivations of work which cause staff does the work because of his interest, being challenging and controversial, and having good and suitable reward. They also believe that every job can itself have motivation by having some special features.
Job enrichment seeking for improvement in performance and for satisfaction in staff expands the domain of its activity to give more opportunity to staff to reach success and personal growth in their jobs. In fact, job enrichment can be devised as an organizational interference to rebuild jobs with the aim of making the persons' jobs challengeable, more inspiring, and satisfying. The theoretical basis of enrichment in many parts is job characteristic model of Hackman and Oldeham. The model shows that job characteristics are related to motivation. These job characteristics include skill variety (a range of skills variety on which doing a job is dependent); job significance (the effective aspects of a job on life and other person' job); job identity (the effort that a person devotes to complete the job); job autonomy (the amount of freedom, independence, and choice that a job provides to a person while planning the job or deciding upon the job process); feedback (the amount of job activities that is necessary to reach a person's job results by direct information and efficiency strategy). ,,
Handful studies have been done regarding calculating the average of job characteristics perception which includes: Khalesi's study showed that the jobs available in training hospitals related to Kerman University of Medical Sciences don't have variety, identity, independence, and feedback and they just have importance of task.  Poorhadi's study showed that rehabilitation jobs in welfare centers of Tehran province may have variety, identity, job importance, and independence but they don't have job feedback. 
Majidi's study showed that among jobs available in Central Bureau of Ministry of Jihad, variety of skills is based on standard only in employee job and management job. In task identity aspect, only expert job, and management job are based on standard; in task importance aspect, only expert job, and management job; in independence aspect, only management job; and in feedback aspect, only employee job, and management.  Nasri's study showed that potential motivation status among teachers and managers in schools of Ghazvin had been assessed higher than average level. 
Tang's study showed that social development schools, teachers, had good and suitable job feedback and independence, job importance, and variety of skills but the results showed that job identity aspects was very low among teachers.  Mattew's study showed that staff with richer and more job characteristics perception than others, have more creativity at work. 
Edgar's study showed that in Montreal hospitals in Canada, nurses' job feedback, independence, job identity, job importance, and variety of skills scores were close to other areas and job importance and independence scores were higher than other compared areas.  Rineer's study, which was done among staff of offices in Portland state, showed that increasing job characteristics perception increases staff job satisfaction and also reduces job stress among young and old staff. 
Gabr's study showed that in the Hospital of Mansoura University in Egypt, nurses' job feedback, importance, identity, variety of skills scores surgical units were higher than average level but in job independence aspect, they had lower score.  Katsaros's study showed that job characteristics enrichment would have a big influence on increasing order among all the general hospitals staff. 
And since medical record department of healthcare center as information repository is responsible for storing information and monitoring its quality, so medical record department plays a basic role expense, diagnosis, and treatment process.  Its services as a part of healthcare system have a special importance and are considered as a valuable benchmark to show treatment quality and quantity and work efficiency which can be a strong tool to promote health parameters quality and quantity. There is no doubt that when medical record high power is used properly, it would promote education and healthcare level; because one of the most important usages of medical record is developing human knowledge. 
Therefore, according to medical record department importance and role and since studies show that medical record department staff's satisfaction is not desirable  and there is no research studying job characteristics which make motivation among hospital medical record departments staff, this study aimed to determine average score of job characteristics perception and its aspects (variety, skills, identity, importance, independence, and feedback) in different parts of medical record department in training hospitals of Isfahan.
The type of the study is descriptive survey. The population of the study includes all the medical record staff working in the medical record departments in training hospitals of Isfahan, which included filing, admission, coding, and statistics staff. One hundred and twenty-seven subjects were selected by conducting a census in 2012.
Data collection tool: In the present study, data collected by using a questionnaire of job characteristics with 23 closed questions which its answering was based on Likert rating. This questionnaire was devised by Hackman and Oldeham in 1980.
Content validity was confirmed by experts and for its reliability, the questionnaires were distributed among 30 experts and then it was calculated through the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (r1 = 0.84).
The completed questionnaires were entered into SPSS (IBM Company, New York, USA) 18 software and statistical analysis done descriptively (frequency percent, mean, standard deviation…) and inferentially (MANOVA, least significant difference) (IBM Company, New York, USA).
| Results|| |
Among 127 people who had completed the questionnaire, 38 were male and 89 female. Most of them (32.3%) had < 30 years old and least of them (4.7%) were older than 51. In the years of service field, most of them (44.1%) had < 10 years of experience and least of them (18.9%) had 21-30 years. The highest education degree was diploma and bachelor (38.6) and the lowest was higher than bachelor (1.6). About respondents' major, 61 people (48%) had medical record degree and 65 people (51.2%) had another degree. Totally, 53 people (41.7%) of respondents were working in admission part, 40 people (31.5%) in filing part, 16 people (12.6%) in statistics part, and 18 people (14.2%) in coding part.
Alzahra hospital had the maximum number of staff with 31 people (24.4%) and Modarres Hospital had the minimum number of staff with four people (3.1%).
According to [Table 1] results, observed T of table critical value was larger at 0.05 error level. Therefore, variety, identity, importance, independence, and feedback were higher than average level.According to [Table 2] results, observed F was not significant at P ≥ 0.05 level, so there was no significant difference between job characteristics perception according to the age and education in hospitals. However, observed F was significant at P ≥ 0.05 level, so there was a significant difference between job characteristics perception according to the unit of service and the years of service in studied hospitals.
|Table 1: Job characteristics perception aspects scores mean and SD of medical record staff in hospitals |
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|Table 2: Job characteristics perception according to their demographic characteristics among medical record department staff in hospitals |
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Least significant difference test results in [Table 3] show that job characteristics perception mean difference among statistics and admission, filing, and statistics was significant at P ≥ 0.05 level, so that job characteristics perception in admission part was less than statistics part and in filing part was less than statistics and since tests significant level in other paired comparisons were more than 0.05 so there is no difference among other paired groups.
|Table 3: Paired comparison of job characteristics perception mean difference in the medical record department staff according to unit of service |
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Least significant difference test results in [Table 4] show that job characteristics perception the mean difference among staff with <10 years of service and staff with 11-20 years of service was significant at P ≥ 0.05 level, so that job characteristics perception in staff with <10 years of service was more than staff with 11-20 years of service and since tests significant level in other paired comparisons was more than 0.05, so there is no difference among other paired groups.
|Table 4: Paired comparison of job characteristics perception mean difference in medical record department staff according to the years of service |
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Besides, the results showed that there was no significant difference between job characteristics perception mean according to gender and type of degree in hospitals of Isfahan University of medical sciences in 2012 (observed F was not significant at P ≥ 0.05 levels).
| Discussion|| |
This study results show that all job characteristics perception aspects score (variety of skills, job importance, job identity, independence, and job feedback) were higher than average level; and it can be said that designing jobs among medical record department staff is in such a way that provides further possibility of skills and talents use. Staff feels that their work and duties are important for department, hospital, and authorities and can have a decisive role in some affairs of hospital. Staff duties are defined properly from the beginning to the end and staff is independent in doing their duties in a way that it can flourish talents and drive staff out of their duties special and conceptual framework and staff can do the works with more initiative and creativity and it will provide possibility to get sufficient feedback for different parts workers.
This research results correspond with research results of Khalesi (only in importance aspect), Poorhadi (except feedback), Majidi, Nasri, Edgar, Tang (except identity aspect), and Gabr (except independence aspect) regarding high score of job characteristics aspects. ,,,,,,
Mean of job importance perception aspect score was higher than other aspects and it can be justified that because of the importance of statistics and information and medical records documentation and their numerous usages, especially with expansion of health information system and reference of many of hospital healthcare staff to this department to get information, it seems that Medical Record Department staff have realized their job position and importance.
Analyzing this research results showed that there was no significant difference among job characteristics perception mean according to age, gender, education and degree in hospitals, and perhaps the reason is that job characteristics deal with internal factors of every job.
However, there was a significant difference between job characteristics perception mean according to unit of service and years of service in hospitals. Job characteristics perception mean among statistics part staff was high in comparison with filling and admission parts and it can be justified that since information and statistics have varied usages at different levels inside and outside of hospital especially for management decisions, this part staff feel that their work is very important and also because this part staff have direct relationship with management, they receive faster feedback of their activities and have more independence in doing their duties. Job characteristics perception mean in staff with <10 years of experience was higher than staff with 11-20 years of experience and the reason can be because of their higher education, so they have realized their job importance.
Although job characteristics aspects score mean was higher than average level, to enrich more this department jobs, it is suggested that manager design medical record department different jobs in a way that its staff acts with intrinsic motivation, enthusiasm, and interest to carry out health system and job goals. It's better to hold occasionally some sessions with staff to make decision on work and gain their solution, and hold in-service training courses to give required information to staff and make motivation for them.
| Conclusion|| |
Results show that score of all job characteristics aspects among medical record staff of training hospitals in Isfahan were higher than average level and job importance perception score was the highest. Since job characteristics have a big role in changing staff intrinsic motivation level, it is suggested to design Medical Record Department different jobs in a way that its staff acts with intrinsic motivation, enthusiasm, and interest to carry out health system and job goals.
The research moral notes
- Introducing research goals and methods for all participants
- Ensuring participants that researchers keep their information confidential
- Receiving research letter from Isfahan University of medical sciences to comply research laws.
| Acknowledgment|| |
Thanks go to those who contributed in this research.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]