|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 212-220
The effectiveness of emotional intelligence on job burnout mediated the self-efficacy among elementary teachers
Reza Barari, Laleh Jamshidi
Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||8-Jun-2015|
Department of Educational Administration, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Semnan, Semnan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence (EI) on job burnout among primary school teachers in Babol mediated the self-efficacy (S.E.). Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study clearly based on structural equation modeling (SEM). The participants of this study were 225 primary school teachers of public schools in Babol in academic year 2014 that were selected via cluster random sampling method. Participants completed Maslach and Jackson's job burnout inventory, teacher S.E. questionnaire (by Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk,) and EI questionnaire (by Schutte,) by individual method and reliability and validity of these questionnaires was obtained. Results: Results of Pearson correlation showed that all EI, job burnout and S.E. components are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Implementing SEM with (partial least squares-SEM) for relationship between EI and job burnout through mediator variable S.E. tests, we found that the proposed model has a good fit and burnout is well explained by EI and S.E. Furthermore, all of the model path coefficients were significant.
Keywords: Elementary teachers, emotional intelligence, job burnout, self-efficacy
|How to cite this article:|
Barari R, Jamshidi L. The effectiveness of emotional intelligence on job burnout mediated the self-efficacy among elementary teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:212-20
|How to cite this URL:|
Barari R, Jamshidi L. The effectiveness of emotional intelligence on job burnout mediated the self-efficacy among elementary teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 21];1:212-20. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/3/212/158328
| Introduction|| |
Nowadays, no one can deny the importance of education. It is our today's and future's capital, which is invaluable and has moved humans from the age of darkness and ignorance to the age of light and brightness.  Therefore, teaching is considered as one of the main and fundamental jobs in each society. Teachers are responsible for directing and training a generation. 
The concept of job burnout was introduced in the early 1970s and Freudenberg presented it academically and technically in 1974. However, job burnout is seen more or less among employed individuals. Unfortunately, as regard to this fact that most of the organization's managers and staffs have no clear definition of this phenomenon and its causing factors and no exact criterion has been presented for it. When a person is affected by such a problem in the organization and its effects are illustrated in his actions and emotions, others call him/her "mad." This tag would lead to the increasing intensity of this problem, having negative attitude toward self, others, job's conditions and even the job itself which in turn would result in different mental and physical illnesses.
Freudenberg for the 1 st time used the job burnout expression for describing unsuitable experiences in service jobs and reaching to a stage in which individuals cannot perform their tasks effectively. 
In most of the researches, the followings are introduced as the influential factors in teachers job burnout: Student's little improvement, sociability with colleagues, low teacher salary, change in sciences, working for long hours, lack of participation in decision-making, inconsistency of expertise with teaching filed, unsuitability of assessment system, lack of using scientific methods, unhealthy relation networks and lack of mutual relationships in the organization, lack of management's attention to the staffs' welfare affairs, sciences and technology, transferring the latest findings to the students, teaching in multi-level classes, teaching one subject in several classes, student's different merits, student's disrespect, etc. 
Kim and Lee believed that burnout can be alleviated by controlling negative mood regulation expectancies, and therefore, intervention efforts, such as counseling, continuing education, or training programs designed to enhance teachers' negative mood regulation expectancies, could benefit teachers in reducing their burnout. 
Various factors affect individuals' efficiency in the organization. One of the factors that severely affects the organizational behavior of each individual is emotional intelligence (EI). Perhaps it can be said that the subject of EI has been started 2000 years ago, when Plato wrote: All learning have an emotional base.  The concept of EI was first introduced by peter Salovey and John Mayer in 1990 which stated that EI is a kind of emotional information processing which includes true evaluation of emotions in self and others, suitable demonstration of feelings and compatible adjustments of feelings.  EI, according to Mayer and Salovey is not only a positive characteristic, but a collection of distinct emotional and reasoning abilities and compared with social intelligence has a more attention towards fundamental emotional issues and solving personal and social problems of the individuals. Individuals with high EI are different from others in having more life satisfaction, enjoying family environment and participating in others feelings and are usually ordered kind, successful, motivated and optimistic. 
Based on Goleman's idea, EI includes a collection of internal factors (the amount of self-awareness, self-belief, independence and capacity, self-actualization and decisiveness) and external factors (interpersonal relationships, ease in sympathy and feeling of responsibility) and refers to the individuals capacity for accepting realities, flexibility, ability to solve emotional problems, ability to problem-solving and coping with stressful events.  The collection of composing variables of EI can be regarded as a platform for the growth of positive mental - social characteristics. Some of the studies have shown that high EI is correlated with positive interpersonal characteristics like mental health, optimism, positive moral, and decrease in depressed moral.  Regarding the various definitions of EI, two general theoretical points of view can be drawn for EI models: (1) Enabling viewpoint which defines EI as a kind of intelligence that encompasses feeling and emotion (2) hybrid viewpoint which defines EI as noncognitive abilities and is more extensive than the first viewpoint. It combines EI with other personal characteristics and abilities like motivation.  Many researches show that EI has relationship with important variables like self-efficacy (S.E.). 
The sources of the advent of S.E. is Bandura's research and social-cognitive theory. According to social-cognitive viewpoint, humans are considered as active creatures that can self-regulate and adjust their behaviors, not as passive creatures that are controlled by unknown environmental forces or internal motions. They actively participate in their own changes and can control events and happenings by their behaviors. Bandura believes that S.E. leads to encouraging motivation and cognitive resources of the individual, and it is a factor for controlling a certain event. S.E. belief is a basis for motivation, better living, and personal achievements in all areas of life.  In fact, the construct of teacher S.E. has been identified as an important factor in academic learning. 
Bandura believes that S.E. is the most important factor in determining the activities we select and also is the determining factor for the amount of intensity by which we perform our tasks.  S.E. is derived from Albert Bandura's social-cognition theory, which refers to the individual's beliefs or judgments about his abilities in fulfilling the tasks and responsibilities.  Self-efficacy beliefs are considered powerful predictors of behavior and have been utilized to understand the events, choices, or effort regulation associated with favorable (e.g., creativity, personal accomplishment) or adverse outcomes (e.g., emotional exhaustion) at. 
In Bandura's social-cognitive viewpoint, individuals are neither motivated by internal forces nor are controlled automatically by external forces. The social-cognitive theory is a hybrid viewpoint, since it assumes that behavior is the indicator of individuals' interaction with the environment. Bandura has identified four main resources for making and changing the S.E. belief system, which are as follows: Enactive, mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, persuasion verbal or social, and physiological and affective states. 
Self-efficacy has a determining role on individuals self-motivation, because S.E. belief affects the selection of goal challenges, the amount of attempt made in doing tasks, the amount of persistence and perseverance in facing with problems, and the amount of tolerance of pressures.  The experiences resulted from the staffs' success or failure in the in-service years impact on their beliefs about their abilities in fulfilling the occupational tasks.  Usually, people search activities and situations which they enthusiastically inclined towards them with which they feel they can match themselves, while they avoid those activities and situations, which they think they cannot cope with Marshal Rio.
According to Bandura, S.E. is the teachers belief about the ability to determine and prepare the ground for improvement in certain tasks and certain environment.  Teachers S.E. in teaching is his/her belief about doing tasks and responsibilities and is related with his educational experiences. , Teachers S.E. came in to the focus of researchers when a branch of researches called RAND showed that this construct can predict both learners improvement and teacher's application of innovative teaching methods. The researchers of RAND study assessed teacher's S.E. through just 2 materials which demonstrated 2 distinct aspects of this construct. The first aspect was called general teaching S.E. which talks about general environmental effects on students' performance. The second aspect called personal teaching S.E. or teachers S.E. argues specifically about a teachers belief regarding his/her abilities to influence the students. 
In Aghdami et al.'s research titled as "the relationship between S.E. and EI with job burnout among the staffs of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch," the findings showed that there was a relationship between S.E. and EI with only personal accomplishment feeling component. Also, it was found that there was no significant relationship between S.E. and EI with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization components. 
The results of Verissimo's study indicated that there was a negative significant relationship between S.E. and job burnout.  Lee demonstrated in his research that having EI is effective in decreasing the job burnout.  In the study done by Adeyemo and Ogunyemi which investigated the occupational stress of faculty members of Nigerea University, the findings showed that EI and S.E. are powerful predictors of occupational stress. In other words, EI and S.E. have negative relationship with occupational stress. Also, S.E. has a major role in predicting occupational stress, compared to EI. 
In a study done on 380 nurses, the findings showed that there was a negative relationship between EI and job burnout.  In Prati et al.'s research, significant relationships were achieved between EI with performance, moral and physical complaints of the staffs, so that as the amount of EI increased, their performance was better, their moral went higher and had less physical complaints.  Mc Queen found that EI has a central role in constructing successful human affairs, so emotional work plays an important role in nurse-patient medical relations, but in the long time it can lead to their job burnout. 
Results of another study indicated that there was a relationship between EI and gender of participants with the experience of job burnout. Female nurses who had high EI showed less burnout signs, compared to male nurses.  The findings of the study carried out by Ehyakonande et al. implied that was a negative significant relationship between EI and job burnout. 
The results of research showed that the variables such as psychological health and EI have a significant role in predicting the changes of nurse's job burnout.  Another research's findings showed that there was no significant difference about job burnout and EI variables among men and women. Furthermore, the components of EI (tolerance of mental pressures, interpersonal relations, optimism, and impulse control) are better predictors in job burnout compared to personal factors. 
The findings of the research done by Rastegar and Memarpoor implied that there was a positive significant relationship between EI and S.E.; also, it was found that there was a significant difference among teachers with different age, gender and educational experiences. In addition, in Moafian and Ghanizadeh's study done on 89 English teachers, significant relationship was found between teachers EI and S.E. ,
The analysis of correlation and regression in Rathi and Rastogi's study showed that EI has a positive relationship with occupational S.E. and is considered as its main predictors.  The findings also imply that people with high EI are more efficient employees, compared to those with low EI. Farmer showed in his research that EI is related with preventing and improving job burnout. 
Given the forementioned explanations, it should be noted that the researchers interest, enthusiasm and perseverance are also influential in reaching the superior goal of this research, - which was the effective relationship of EI, S.E. and job burnout. Since every organization's attempt is to maximize the efficiency and quality of output and results achieved from that organization's process, this goal should be seriously pursued in education organization, too. The final goal of this organization is to train skilled and professional individuals in different areas. To achieve this goal, the presence and existence of motivated and energetic teachers is necessary. One of the influential factors on teachers motivation which the current research is investigating it is their EI and S.E. That is, whether EI and S.E. have any effect on teachers job burnout or there is no significant relationship between these three variables.
In the area of emotions' revolution in organizational social psychology, EI is suggested as a main predicting factor of the organizational results. With regards to the researcher's findings which indicate and confirm that the abilities and teaching of EI affect the organizational behaviors. Lack of capability and emotional capacity can prevent people from achieving their real potentials, however, its positive aspect is that EI is learnable and is not genetically fixed. Also, like EI, S.E. is learnable and is not in born. 
Regarding the dimensions of burnout which include physical burnout, emotional problems and attitudinal burnout, the dimensions of the 2 intended variables (EI and S.E.) try to make a productive power, which could organize the humans cognitive, social, emotional and behavioral skills to effectively achieve the goals. In other words, they try to decrease the burnout and its related dimensions.
Nowadays, regarding the necessity of social changes, education is considered as one of the complex and big social organizations of every country and has an inseparable link with social, cultural and economic growth and development and has gradually moved from a primitive simple state to a complicated state. The effectiveness of education is transforming the talented humans to healthy, balanced, motivated and mature one in one hand, and providing the needs of society's human resources in different cultural, social and economic areas on the other hand.
Teachers are the link between educational system and students and the success of instructional programs complied in the educational system is to a large extent due to the teachers S.E. Therefore, by investigating this factor we can take a big step towards fulfilling the superior goals of education.
In the present study, the three intended variables were investigated under the title of "the effect of EI on primary teachers job burnout at Babol city, with S.E. as the mediator variable." The independent, dependent and mediator variables of this study are EI, job burnout, and S.E., respectively.
In this research, the main purpose is to investigate the mediating role of S.E. in the relationship between EI and job burnout of primary teachers at Babol city. Also, the mutual relationships between EI, job burnout and S.E. have been investigated, too. Therefore, based on the presented definitions and previous researches, the researchers have presented the following conceptual model [Figure 1]:
Accordingly, the following questions will be answered in this research:
- Does teachers EI have a direct, positive and significant effect on their S.E.?
- Does teachers EI have a direct, negative and significant effect on their job burnout?
- Does teachers S.E. have a direct, negative and significant effect on their job burnout
- Does teachers EI with mediating role of S.E. have indirect, negative and significant effect on their job burnout?
Based on the purpose, this research is practical since its results are applicable for all organizations and educational and research systems, especially education and schools. Based on how to gather the required data, it is descriptive and correlational in which the relationships between variables are analyzed according to the research purpose.
The population of this study include all the primary school teachers of Babol city who are at work on public schools in the educational year of 2014. The total number of teachers is 540 persons. The sampling is random clustering (the school is considered as the unit of sampling) and has been done based on Morgan table. The sample with regards to the population consists of 225 persons and among them 221 questionnaires have been returned. The main instruments for data gathering in this research are 3 questionnaires:
- Maslach and Jackson  job burnout questionnaire: It has been designed in 22 items to assess the amount and intensity of job burnout in three-dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment on a 7-point Likert scale (from 0 to 6)
- Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy  teachers S.E. questionnaire: It has been prepared in 24 items and assesses three-dimensions of efficacy for students engagement in educational affairs, efficacy for instructional strategies and efficacy for classroom management on a 5-points Likert scale (from 1 to 5)
- Schutte  EI questionnaire: It consists of 33 items and assesses three variables of emotion evaluation and expression, emotion regulation and emotion exploitation on a 5-points Likert scale (from 1 to 5).
In the research, the reliability of instruments has been achieved through Cronbach's alpha for job burnout, EI, and S.E. questionnaires as 0.86, 0.91 and 0.92, respectively. These numbers indicate that questionnaires are reliable to assess the validity of questionnaires, content validity and construct validity were applied. Content validity was determined by experts and construct validity was done through confirmatory factor analysis. The data were analyzed by Spss Version 20 IBM company and Lisrel Version 8.5 Scientific Software International. statistical Software. To ensure the suitability of data to be used in this research, Kaiser and Meyer and Olkin (KMO) goodness of fit (GFI) test and Bartlet test were done. The amount of KMO test is 0.811 (KMO > 0.5) and the amount of Bartlet test is 8082.250 (P < 0.01) that indicates the GFI of sample and entered variables to do factor analysis.
Confirmatory factor analysis is used to assess the validity of measurement scales  and confirmatory factor analysis estimates the amount of GFI of the model with data.  The results of confirmatory factor analysis for S.E. showed that factor loads of all items of the intended instrument are above 0.3 and they are in good state. Also, the fitness indices resulted from performing confirmatory factor analysis of S.E. after modifying the model indicate the suitable validity of the instrument (χ2 = 675.28, degree of freedom [DF] =249, P = 0.000, root mean squared error of approximation [RMSEA] =0.088, χ2 / DF = 2.711).
The results of confirmatory factor analysis for job burnout showed that factor loads of all items of the intended instrument is above 0.3 and they are in good state. Also, the fitness indices resulted from performing confirmatory factor analysis of job burnout after modifying the model indicate the suitable validity of the instrument (χ2 = 450.33, DF = 374, P = 0.000, RMSEA = 0.078, χ2 / DF = 2.337).
The results of confirmatory factor analysis for EI indicated that factor loads of items 4, 5, 28, and 33 of the intended instrument was <0.3, and hence these items were deleted from the model. The results of confirmatory factor analysis after deleting these items showed that all the factor loads and significant numbers related to the models parameters were in good state and the fitness indices resulted from performing confirmatory factor analysis of EI after modifying the model indicate the suitable validity of the instrument (χ2 = 450.33, DF = 186, P = 0.000, RMSEA = 0.080, χ2 /DF = 2.421).
The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of EI on primary teachers job burnout with the mediating role of S.E. In so doing, the relationships between composing variables of EI, S.E. and job burnout will be reported through Pearson correlation. Then the results of performing structural equation modeling (SEM) will be reported. As can be seen in [Table 1], all the observed variables are correlated with each other at %1 level of significance.
|Table 1: Mean, SD and correlation between job burnout variables and self-efficacy and EI |
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According to [Table 1], the highest observed correlations were related to the relationships between EI and emotion exploitation (0.915), S.E. and class management (0.910), S.E. and teaching methods (0.890), S.E. and involving learners (0.881). The lowest observed correlations were related to the relationships between involving the learners and depersonalization (0.138), emotion regulation and emotional exhaustion (0.198), emotion evaluation and depersonalization (0.202). As reported, all the existing correlations are significant (P < 0.01). This means that all variables have mutual relationships. Also, the negative mark indicates the reveres relationship between variables. In other words, the increase in the amount of emotion regulation would decrease the emotional exhaustion. Research hypotheses will be examined in this section.
To test the hypotheses and suggested model that is, investigating the relationship between EI and job burnout with S.E. as the mediator, the gathered data were analyzed through SEM. The results are illustrated in [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Testing the model for relationship between emotional intelligence and job burnout through mediating variable of self-efficacy path coefficients and significance index T (figures between parenthesis)|
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As you can see, the general indices of GFI test in SEM indicate the overall fitness of the suggested model.
Therefore, our data have well confirmed the suggested model and the general structure of the relationships under investigation was confirmed through obtained data (χ2 = 42.31, DF = 24, P = 0.000, RMSEA = 0.059, GFI = 0.96, adjusted GFI = 0.92, χ2 / DF = 1.762).
The produced indices of SEM are not limited only to general GFI indices of the model. Also, There are standard parameters of β and ϒ (path coefficients) and T-values corresponding to it for each of causal paths of exogenous variable EI to endogenous variables job burnout and S.E. (gamma coefficients) and from the path of latent mediating variable of S.E. to latent endogenous variable job burnout (beta coefficient) that should be interpreted. These coefficients and indices indicate the relative power of each path. As can be seen in [Figure 2], the highest coefficient is related to the path from EI to S.E. (0.56). Then, form EI to job burnout (-0.32), and after that, form S.E. to EI (-0.28). Results of performing significance test of T show that all the path coefficients of β and ϒ are significant (P < 0.01).
Along with examining the general GFI indices and coefficient of beta and gamma, examining the λy and λx coefficients is important.
In [Figure 2], λy amounts indicate factor loads of latent variable of job burnout and S.E. Here, the highest λy is from S.E. to class management (0.43) and the lowest λy are form job burnout to depersonalization and from S.E. to involving the students (0.37).
As can be seen, all the λy coefficients are average amounts. T-significance test shows that all the obtained coefficients are significant (P < 0.01).
Also, in [Figure 2], λx amounts (factor loads of latent variable of EI) show that the highest λx is from EI to emotion exploitation and emotion evaluation and expression (0.38) and the lowest λx is form EI to emotion regulation (0.28). As can be seen, all the λx coefficients are weak amounts. T-significance test shows that all the obtained coefficients are significant (P < 0.01).
With regards to the output of research conceptual model and the output of multi-dimensional correlation, it was found that 29% of teacher's job burnout changes is determined by EI and S.E. of teachers in the following, research hypotheses will be examined.
Teacher's EI has direct, positive and significant effect on their S.E.
As can be seen, structural equations are used to investigate the effect of EI on S.E. of primary teachers of Babol city. Regarding the standard path coefficients (0.56) and T-significance index (7.51) of EI to S.E. in [Figure 2], it can be concluded that EI has direct, positive and significant effect of S.E.
Also, according to bellow equation, the amount of multi-dimensional correlations between EI and S.E. is 0.31. It means that EI determines 31% of S.Es changes.
Teacher's EI has direct, negative and significant effect on their job burnout with regards to the standard path coefficients (-0.32) and T-significance index (-2.99) of EI to job burnout in [Figure 2], it can be concluded that EI has direct, negative and significant effect on teacher's S.E.
Teacher S.E. has direct, negative and significant effect on their job burnout. According to the standard path coefficients (-0.28) and T-significance index (-2.69) of S.E. to job burnout in [Figure 2], it can be concluded that S.E. has direct, negative and significant effect on teacher's job burnout.
Teachers' EI with the mediating role of S.E. has indirect, negative and significant effect on their job burnout.Regarding the standard path coefficients of EI to S.E. and S.E. to job burnout (0.56 and -0.28, respectively and -0.16 as a whole) and T-significance index (-2.67) in [Figure 2], it can be concluded that teachers' EI with S.E. as mediator has indirect, negative and significant effect on their job burnout.
| Conclusion|| |
This research aimed to investigate the relationship between EI and S.E. with job burnout of primary teachers of Babol city. These relationships were tested through both Pearson correlation and SEM and path analysis. The results showed that all the model's observed parameters in the latent variables are mutually correlated. The highest amounts of correlation are related to the relationship between observed variables of EI, emotion exploitation and S.E. together (engaging the students, instructional strategies, and class management).
In addition to the above-confirmed relationship, the structural relations between EI and job burnout with mediating role of S.E. were tested, too. With regards to the findings of hypothesis 1 which showed that EI has direct, positive and significant effect on teachers' S.E., so training and enhancing teachers' EI would lead to the improvement of teacher-student's engaging in educational affairs, instructional strategies and class management. The research findings are in line with findings of Aghdami, Prati, Rastegar, Moafian, and Rathi. ,,,, Bandura has defined S.E. as the individual's belief in ability to do an action in a certain situation. When the individual's performance is consistent with or goes beyond personal norms, it would lead to the maintenance and increase of S.E. while the weak performance and lower than personal norms would result in decrease of S.E. believing in S.E. effects on many aspects of life like individual's selection, decision-making, the amount of attempt, the level of persistence and perseverance and dealing with challenging problems. 
The findings of hypothesis (2) showed that EI has direct, negative and significant effect on teachers' job burnout. Also, people with high EI are more resistant against job burnout and stress. Therefore, it is possible to decrease the amount of job burnout through teaching and enhancing EI. This research finding are consistent with findings of Ehyakonandeh, Beyrami, Nikbakhsh, lee, Gerits, Mcqueen, Ahmadi, farmer, but are inconsistent with the findings of Aghdami which showed that EI has negative and significant relationship with only lack of personal accomplishment. Job burnout is described as lack of interest in job and can be identified through emotional exhaustion loss of personality, depression, low morale and emotional seclusion. ,,,,,,,
According to the other findings of the research, S.E. has direct, negative and significant effect on job burnout. It is in line with the findings of Amini and Verissimo. , However, in Aghdmi's research S.E. has negative and significant relationship with only lack of personal accomplishment and has no significant relationship with other variables. Teachers with higher S.E. can better match themselves with students and answer better to their specific needs. High S.E. can lead to some behaviors on the part of teachers, like spending more time in the class, more innovation in designing educational programs, suitable class management, and the application of those teaching methods which are more compatible with students' characteristics.
Based on the main finding of this research, the effect of the mediating role of S.E. in the relationship between EI and job burnout of primary teachers of Babol city is negative, indirect and significant, but this amount is less regarding the direct effect of EI on job burnout. Based on the results of different researches, it can generally be said that people with high EI can use their total potential capacities and change limitation to opportunity. Surely, these people are positive characters and in their life and job situations can achieve successes that will effect on their happiness.
- Suitable programs be planned and presented for the enhancement of EI of staffs of educational centers and educational services institutes
- In order to improve teachers teaching and class management, it is suggested that the number of students be proportionate to the class space and teachers ability
- Regarding the effect of job burnout on the efficacy and teaching quality of teachers, it is suggested that through the extension of consulting services for teachers, educational and preventive programs be increased. Also, by identifying teachers affected by job burnout, necessary interventions through occupational and organizational consulting services should be done to treat them
- Educational organizations and schools should identify active teachers and appreciate their useful services. It is very effective in enhancing their morale and occupational commitment
- To decrease teachers' job burnout and increase relationships with other staffs, a plan should be designed through which teachers and other staffs could meet each other outside the school and not in the working time
- Improving teachers welfare status
- Holding in-service classes in order to familiarize teachers with new technologies in the area of teaching to training by the purpose of enhancing teachers' S.E. level
- Acceptance and training teachers through teacher-training centers in order to provide human resources
- Enhancing the spiritual status of teachers through mass media.
Suggestion for further researches
Since the research sample was limited to public primary school teachers of Babol city. It is probable that the school type (public or private) and the place of service (city or village) be effective on the amount of job burnout. Hence, it is suggested that these factors be considered in similar future studies.
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