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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 238-240

Effect of cyclic meditation on quality of life and perceived stress in female adolescence


Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication8-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sony Kumari
c/o, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, No. 19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle, Kempegowda Nagar, Bengaluru - 560 019, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.158348

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  Abstract 

Aim: Effect of cyclic meditation (CM) on quality of life (QOL) and perceive stress in female adolescence. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in school students (58 adolescence girl). Participants age ranged from 14 to 17 years with a mean age of (mean ± standard deviation = 16.41 ± 0.56). All subjects were recruited from Bongo Sishu Balika Vidhalaya Bali Hawra (West Bengal) India. The variables (perceive stress scale and QOL enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire) were assessed before the CM practices. All the student underwent CM practices daily for 30 min afternoon 3 pm to 3:30 pm, 5 days a week for 1-month under the guidance of a trainer yoga therapist. These CMs consisted of eight steps. The eight-step CM is the same, which is following in SVYASA Yoga University. After 30 days of intervention, the parameters were repeated. Results: The data analysis showed significant improvement in QOL (P < 0.05) and significant changes in perceive stress (P < 0.05) and there is no significant change in quality of satisfaction. The result shows significant value in both the variables month of CM one. Conclusion: These findings suggest that practice 1-month of CM showed that there is a significant impact on QOL and perceived stress in an adolescent girl.

Keywords: Adolescence, perceived stress, quality of life cyclic meditation, yoga


How to cite this article:
Kumari S, Ghosh S. Effect of cyclic meditation on quality of life and perceived stress in female adolescence. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:238-40

How to cite this URL:
Kumari S, Ghosh S. Effect of cyclic meditation on quality of life and perceived stress in female adolescence. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 13];1:238-40. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/3/238/158348


  Introduction Top


Quality of life (QOL) reflects an individual's subjective perceptions of overall satisfaction with life and general well-being. It is recognized as a multidimensional concept and, therefore, can be described in terms of fulfillment and functioning in physical, psychological, emotional, social and vocational/educational domains. The cognitive, behavioral, and social problems in adolescents girl with epilepsy results from multiple interacting causes, including socioeconomic-family, psychological, biological, medication factors, and QOL.

Perceived stress is one of the common problem in adolescent girl compared with boys, girl's showed a higher amount of perceived interpersonal stress and prone for social support. There is a research, which detects that the female adolescent has more problem-focused and emotion-focused coping were negatively related to emotional and behavioral problems, whereas perceived stress and maladaptive coping was positively associated with adjustment problems. These relations were stronger in female than in male adolescents. [1] Most of the girl feel distress and perceive stress because the phase changes between early childhood to full adolescent they faced so many changes on her family, society, and in school. These changes create differences in their moods, behaviors, and psychological aspects. [2]

Yoga is an ancient Indian science, which includes the practice of loosening exercises (sithilikaranavyayama) specific postures (asana), cleansing practices (kriyas), voluntarily regulated breathing (pranayama), yoga-based guided relaxation and meditation (dhyana). Yoga an ancient Indian culture and way of life, which gives the practitioner a healthy body and sound mind is known to alleviate stress and produce relaxation. Many branches of yoga have been described, such as "Hatha" yoga, "Karma" yoga, "Bhakti" yoga and others. Yoga includes postural exercises (asana'), breath control (Pranayama') and at a higher state aims to "yoke' or Join" the individual soul to the universal soul. Sahaja yoga is reported to help in the prevention of stress disorders.

A randomized control trial study on adolescent psychiatric outpatient's age range between 14 and 18 years they were given 5 month mind-body intervention and the results showed reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatic distress, and perceived stress. [3]

The previous study investigated the effects of a 10-week mindfulness-based intervention on self-reported mindfulness, impulsiveness, perceived stress, and healthy self-regulation in a group of 32 incarcerated youth. Thirty-two participants completed questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 23 participants were interviewed on completion of the intervention where the results suggest that mindfulness-based intervention for incarcerated youth may mitigate the numerous psychological stressors associated with incarcerated living. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. [4]

An observational, transversal study was carried out to examine cross-cultural differences in perceived QOL and health-related behaviors on adolescents from southern Portugal and southern Spain. Sample consists in 319 adolescents. The Kidscreen-27 child self-report, a short version of health behavior in school-aged children questionnaire, and a Sociodemographic questionnaire were used. Results suggest significant differences between Portuguese and Spanish adolescents health behaviors. Portuguese adolescents experiment more legal drugs and consume more wine and beer. More Spanish adolescents smoke. No differences were found between countries on hashish use, liquor consumption, inebriation, Spanish adolescents perceived themselves with better QOL. Gender differences were found on several dimensions of QOL. Results are discussed with previous research on this topic and might be considered by nurses when promoting adolescent health.

Cyclic meditation (CM) is the meditation technique named as moving meditation taken from Mandukiya Upanishad, which is a combination of the yoga postures and relaxation techniques. It is based on the principles of stimulation and relaxation. There are three relaxation techniques included in this meditation practice, which are instant relaxation technique, quick relaxation technique, and deep relaxation technique.


  Materials and Methods Top


Subjects were recruited from Bongo Sishu Balika Vidhalaya Bali Hawra (West Bengal) India all subjects were 10 th -12 th standard pass out. Participants are school students (58 adolescence girl) participants age ranged were from 14 to 17 years with a mean age of (mean ± standard deviation = 16.41 ± 0.56). Subjects age range was between 14 and 17 years. All subjects were female and subjects were 10 th -12 th standard pass out. The study protocol will be explained to the subjects, and their signed consent will be obtained. The design of this study was single group pre- and post-design and the sampling were convenient sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 version (Armonk, NY: IBM Company) using nonparametric test. In the present study, QOL and perceived stress scale (PSS) variables were used.

Quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire

The scoring of the QOL enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire (Q-LES-Q-SF) involves summing only the first 14 items to yield a raw total score. The last two items are not included in the total score, but are standalone items. The raw total score ranges from 14 to 70. [5] For assessing the validity of the Q-LES-Q-SF - short form research was done in adults, and the research found with Internal consistency of the Q-LES-Q-SF items was 88, and the correlation between the Q-LES-Q-SF total score and the SAS total T-score was 72. After these results, it can be supported that the Q-LES-Q-SF is valid to measure the QOL. [6]

Perceived stress scale

The PSS measures a global perception of the stress response on a continuum from mild to severe. PSS is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. The questions in the PSS are of general nature, relatively free of content specific to any sub-population group and enquire about feelings and thoughts to measure the "degree to which situations in one's life is appraised as stressful" especially, over last 1-month. The items are easy to understand, and response alternatives are simple to grasp. Items are designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. It comprises of 10 items, four of which are reverse-scored, measured on a 5-point scale from 0 to 4. PSS scores are obtained by reversing responses (e.g., 0 = 4, 1 = 3, 2 = 2, 3 = 1 and 4 = 0) to the four positively stated items (items 4, 5, 7, and 8) and then summing across all scale items. The total score ranges from 0 to 40. The measure has good reliability, validity and internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 88. It has been widely used, is general in nature, and brief.

Intervention

Cyclic meditation

Cyclic meditation is the meditation technique named as moving meditation taken from Mandukiya Upanishad which is a combination of the yoga postures. This technique of yoga postures with guided meditation was given by H. R. Nagendra, Ph. D, called CM, which has its' origin in an ancient Indian text, Mandukiya Upanishad. [7] It is interesting that CM does induce a quiet state of mind, which is compatible with the description of meditation (dhyana or effortless expansion), according to Patanjali the description states Tatra pratyayaikatanata dhyanam' (Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, chapter 3: verse 2). This means that the uninterrupted flow of the mind towards the object chosen for meditation is dhyana. [8] In CM the period of practicing yoga postures is a combination of alternate stimulation and followed by relaxation'. Stimulation is done by stretching part by part and relaxation by savasana or relaxation technique. An essential part of the practice of CM is being aware of sensations arising in the body. [9]


  Results Top


Data were not normally distributed, and we have conducted a nonparametric test to see the within group result. Result showed significant improvement in QOL + 4.9% (P > 0.05) and significant changes in perceive stress + 7.1% (P > 0.05) and there is changes in the mean value of postquality of satisfaction – 0.2%. Thus, the results of the study concluded that the significant value of both variables is highly significant [Table 1].
Table 1: Pre- and post-changes of perceive stress, QOL and quality of satisfaction after 1-month of CM


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The mechanism behind the find could be because, the practice of CM leads to deeper physical and mental relaxation, which could be cause for improved positive attitude and approach towards life. Previous study investigated the effects of a 10-week mindfulness-based intervention on self-reported mindfulness, impulsiveness, perceived stress, and healthy self-regulation in a group of 32 incarcerated youth. Thirty-two participants completed questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. In addition, 23 participants were interviewed upon completion of the intervention where the results suggest that mindfulness-based intervention for incarcerated youth may mitigate the numerous psychological stressors associated with incarcerated living. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

The present study was aimed to see the effect of 1-month CM practice on perceive stress and QOL in an adolescent girl. End of the study we observed significant improvement in QOL and changes in perceive stress. The result shows that there is significant result in both variables.


  Conclusion Top


This study has the strength with large sample size and success to show the preliminary step in determining the effect of CM on QOL and perceive stress in female adolescence. In future, we can examine the effect of CM on QOL and perceive stress in other generation, and we have to expand our sample size.

 
  References Top

1.
Hampel P, Petermann F. Perceived stress, coping, and adjustment in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2006;38:409-15.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Pierrehumbert B, Torrisi R, Glatz N, Dimitrova N, Heinrichs M, Halfon O. The influence of attachment on perceived stress and cortisol response to acute stress in women sexually abused in childhood or adolescence. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;34:924-38.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Biegel GM, Brown KW, Shapiro SL, Schubert CM. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for the treatment of adolescent psychiatric outpatients: A randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 2009;77:855-66.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Himelstein S. A mixed method study of a mindfulness-based intervention on incarcerated youth. Diss Abstr Int B Sci Eng 2010;59:151-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Endicott J, Nee J, Harrison W, Blumenthal R. Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire: A new measure. Psychopharmacol Bull 1993;29:321-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mick E, Faraone SV, Spencer T, Zhang HF, Biederman J. Assessing the validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form in adults with ADHD. J Atten Disord 2008;11:504-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Swami C. Mandukya Upanishad. Bombay, India: Sachin Publishers; 1984.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Taimini IK. The Science of Yoga. Madras, India: The Theosophical Publishing House; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Nagendra HR, Nagarathna R. New Perspectives in Stress Management. Bangalore, India: Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashan; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 9
    



 
 
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Abstract
Introduction
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