|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 35-43
Validation of the training and human resource development of excellence model in Iran
Abasalt Khorasani, Mohammad Amouzad, Azam Molamohammadi
Department of Education, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||25-Jan-2016|
Dr. Azam Molamohammadi
Department of Education, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The main objective of this study was to validate Training and Development of Excellence Model (TDEM) in Iran. Method: This study is a descriptive research and was conducted by using survey method. The statistical society contains specialists, experts, and key knower of training area about TDEM in Iran. Statistical sample included 154 people selected using a stratified random sampling method. The tool used is a questionnaire containing 124 items. Obtained results were analyzed using statistical methods of structural equation benchmarking and using LISREL statistical software (lisrel 8.5). Results: The research findings showed that the amount of the Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index was 0.91, and the amount of the Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation was estimated by 0.08, therefore model validation indexes are desirable. Furthermore, by using t-test, investigation of the model parameters is discussed. Conclusions: The results of this study have been indicated favorable validation indexes of TDEM. The segmentation of the model is also supported by the findings (segmentation into three parts; enablers, processes, and results).
Keywords: Enabler, process, result, structural equation model, Training and Human Resource Development Model, validationAddress for Correspondence:
|How to cite this article:|
Khorasani A, Amouzad M, Molamohammadi A. Validation of the training and human resource development of excellence model in Iran. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2016;2:35-43
|How to cite this URL:|
Khorasani A, Amouzad M, Molamohammadi A. Validation of the training and human resource development of excellence model in Iran. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Apr 6];2:35-43. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2016/2/1/35/174790
| Introduction|| |
In today's changing environment, human resources (HRs) are precious capital and have a key role and education is considered as the only way to create and develop “competitive weapon”. The importance of learning as a competitive advantage over everyone is clear and obvious. Today, organizational training, not just ancillary task or action, but is considered as the most sensitive and the most effective organizational activities. Education has always been considered as a sure means to improve the quality, performance, and resolve problems, and the absence of it is considered as a key and critical problem to any organization. In this context, organizations spend a lot of money to develop programs and improve their own staff and try to use innovative and effective teaching methods and strategies. One of these methods is the presence of organizations in the excellence awards assessment process related to education and development, to be assessed at a higher level, and also in addition to identify their improvable areas, they move toward best practice in the field of organizational learning. Despite the design, Training and Development of Excellence Models (TDEMs) in some countries of the world, in Iran, in 2012, some experts in this field have focused on the design of this model, so by using this way, the transcendent organizations by local and applicable model are in the Iranian context be identified, and emulate others from them will be possible, and organizational learning of the country moves toward better conditions.
However, with the purpose to validate the model, the validity approach of the professionals is used, but by using the navigation tools, expert's comments in this field, in terms of size, type of organization, and different businesses, have not been analyzed. Validation of this model, in addition, to provide an opportunity to review comments of experts, makes possible the field of quantitative survey, content, and structural relationships of the model structure. Hence, this study tries to investigate and analyze the status of the structural relations of this model and relationship of each of the model parameters associated with three sections enablers, processes, and results by analyzing the opinions of experts in the field of education and development about TDEM in Iran.
Research objectives and hypotheses
This study aimed to validate TDEM in Iran, has been carried out. The research sought to test the conceptual and the statistical model in order to evaluate the relationship between nine criteria of model with three section enablers, processes, and results, and determine relations and the direct and indirect effects of these measures on the other.
H1: Enablers have a positive and direct impact on processes in the TDEM.
H2: Enablers have a positive and direct impact on results in the TDEM.
H3: Processes have a positive and direct impact on results in the TDEM.
Theoretical framework of the research
The ability of an organization to assess the operation and performance quality of its units is important. This assessment is necessary for two reasons:First, we are well informed about what is happening in the organization; second, we identify and resolve the existing problems. In an organization, there are different units, which their evaluation needs different methods. Some of them may be evaluated through quantitative measures (such as production, sales), and some of them may be evaluated through qualitative measures, or on the basis of both measures. Assessing some organizational units is very difficult, and sometimes impossible. For example, one of these units is HRs, which is very difficult to assess. Assessment of HRs evaluates HR activities of an organization. Briefly, HR evaluation controls the quality of HRs activities and their support from the organization's strategy. [Table 1] briefly presents the most benefits of HRs: Assessment is not a 1-day process, and in order to do that, a variety of approaches can be used. Ghelich Lee in the book entitled “Excellence in HRs” lists and describes over 13 methods. Some of the most important ways are shown in [Table 2].
The most important and recent approach to assess the areas of HRs of an organization is HR Excellence. This approach uses best criteria and measures related to HRs of an organization, so that HR professionals can be identified their strengths and areas for improvement assessed through evaluation of ongoing activities, procedures, processes, and results of their HRs, and they can plan for their improvement. Among applications of HR Excellence approach it include: knowing and deliberate focus on strengths and improvable areas of the HRs, planning for the short-term, medium-term, and long-term improving of the HRs, improve and redesign the structure, processes, activities, and systems of the HRs, different criteria to increase the contribution of HRs to achieve business goals and strategies, using various performance indicators to demonstrate the contribution of HRs in organizational performance. Today, many countries, in addition to encourage organizations and companies to promote business excellence models including European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM), Business Excellence American Award (Baldrige), Deming Award, through institutions and professional associations of management and development of human resources to companies and organizations, which in the field of their HRs achieved significant success, awards, and national and international standards are granted in the national and international level, which some of them include HR Excellence Awards of the HR Management Association of America, standard investment in HRs (investors in people [UK]), developer standard (people developer [Singapore]), and so on, which are shown in [Table 3].
|Table 3: List of the most important organizational and HRs excellence models|
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Status of education and HR development in HRs and organizational excellence models
Although business excellence models have many advantages, excellence models due to organizational inclusion despite being comprehensive, have a deep and narrow focus on areas of expertise. Specifically, these models are active in all areas, but we pay little deeper into specialized areas such as HRs, training, knowledge management, innovation management, and technology, and so on. As evidence of this claim, we can be noted to the efforts of processes owners to design professional models in the relevant field. For example, while Baldrige Excellence Model is designed to evaluate the entire organization, but American Society by creating Tennessee Model has provided professional evaluating opportunities of the HRs through this model. Training and HR development in organizational excellence models are usually discussed in the context of personnel measure (HRs). With the purpose of outlining the business excellence models capacities in the evaluation of education area, training status in the model EFQM in [Table 4] is described  such as organizational excellence models, although models of HRs excellence, have tried to solve the problems of comprehensive models, and to assess in more depth the HR processes, but, the focus needed to investigate more precise balance between each of the areas have not been established. As in the review of Iran's HRs excellence model and its criteria is evident, in the criterion5 (HRs development) and citerion8 (HRs results); review and assess the status of organizational learning will be discussed.
Training and human resources development of excellence model
As illustrated in comparative [Table 4] and [Table 5], despite the design and deployment of the excellence models in large areas of organization and HRs, due to the lack of saturation of education and development fields, professional associations, scientific experts, and activists in this area since a few decades ago, in countries such as America and England, enjoying the excellence approach, tried to design awards and specific excellence models to this area. Among the most important awards in this area, Van ne noted the following cases:
|Table 5: The criteria and sub-criteria related to the training in the excellence model of HRs|
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- American Society Training and Development Awards
- National Training Award
- Irish Institute of Training and Development National Training Awards
- TAE Awards for training achievements
- Australian Training Awards
- Golden Peacock National Training Award
- New Zealand Training Award.
Training and development of excellence model in Iran
TDEM in 2011, and in the context of the Scientific Society of Training and Development, is formed. This model, by benchmarking from experiences of leading countries in the education of staff, and by optimize mining of organizational excellence approaches in the world is designed. Furthermore, in order to validate the content of the original model, with the participation of a large number of academics, key actors in the field of HRs and training, in 2011, survey and reviewing has been done. TDEM has nine criteria and 27 sub-criteria, which each of the sub-criteria have relevant guideline with the purpose of detailed explanation of content developed. Overview of this model is shown in [Figure 1].
Enablers are the propellers of an excellence model, which have a direct impact on the process and have an indirect effect on its results, while also affected by both of them.
The criterion of the leadership of training and development
Leadership of Training and Development in the Training and Development Excellence Model is: Determine the mission, perspective, values, and principles of the Organization's Training and Development by leaders and playing role by them in excellence culture for employees and motivate staff for teaching and learning. Furthermore, make sure the design and teaching strategies based on the needs and goals of employees and the organization, and ensure that their initiatives and training activities in order to realize organizational perspective, goals, and strategies.
The criterion of the culture of learning and development
Culture of Learning and Development in the TDEM is: Considering employees' efforts for continuous learning, self-directed as valuable by the leaders of the organization, and provide the perfect platform to establish and institutionalize a culture of ongoing learning and development, and creating values and the basic principles of training and development for occurrence of the inner and outer motives for employees and managers.
The criterion of strategy of training and development
Training and development strategy in the TDEM by leaders, according to the internal and environmental requirements, mission, perspective, goals, and strategies of the organization (vertical alignment), and HR strategy (horizontal alignment) be defined, and hence training programs in order to achieve the essential strategies be developed and done.
Processes are a series of executive actions, which enablers and results have a direct impact on them.
The criterion of educational needs assessment
Educational needs assessment in the TDEM refers to analyze and prioritize the educational needs of managers and employees at three levels (organizational, career, and personal) to achieve goals and strategies for training and improving competence and capability of HRs.
The criterion of designing and planning of training
Training design and planning in the training and education of excellence model refers to design and develop applicable training programs, and according to the needs of the organization, job, person, and in periods of short-term, medium-term, and long-term and based on educational goals and strategies, priorities, resources, and organizational capabilities to meet the highest educational needs identified.
The criterion of training management
Training management in the TDEM refers to provide facilities, resources, and necessary infrastructures for effective implementation of training programs developed using the systems and effective implementation procedures.
The criterion of evaluation and monitoring of training's process
Evaluation and monitoring of training's process in the TDEM refer to evaluation and monitoring of the training cycle consisted of participants, training courses, training programs, educational processes and use the results to continually review and improving of current approaches, and making educational decisions.
Results are the tangible and intangible return of the processes implementation, which are derived influenced by enablers.
The criterion of the functional results
Functional results in the TDEM refer to a set of functional indicators related to educational systems and processes, which according to the strategy, objectives, training programs, and functions are identified, and at different intervals, are monitored, and the results obtained are reported to stakeholders in this field.
The criterion of key organizational results
Key organizational results in the TDEM refer to a set of key indicators of organization and financial and nonfinancial achievements (tangible and intangible) which influenced by processes and activities in the areas of training and development based on the needs and expectations of customers and stakeholders in line with successful implementation of strategies and policies, are identified and measured, and its results are reported to stakeholders in this field.
A conceptual model for research
This model [Figure 2], which is designed, based on TDEM, consists of three main sections including enablers, processes, and results, are considered as the main factors. These factors, as well as have impact of each other, also are influenced by each other, in fact, the general structure of the assumptions of this study is formed based on the influence of these factors on each other as the main core of the model.
In the enablers, there are three main variables of leadership training and development, and culture of learning and development, and training and development strategy, which each of these measurements by observed variables and their impact on that sector is reviewed.
In processes, there are four main variables: Educational needs assessment, training design and planning, training management and evaluation, and monitoring learning processes, each of them is measured by observed variables and their impact on its part has been investigated. Finally, in the results, there are two main variables: Functional results and key organizational results, each of them is measured by the observed variables, and their impact on that sector has been investigated.
Method of research
This study is a type of correlation researches with the use of “causal modeling.” Due to the limitations of correlation statistical methods, and regression analysis to determine the causal pathways between variables, the researchers followed the social-cognitive theory, have emphasized on the causal methods such as path analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM).
Population, sample, and sampling
In this study, the target population consists of professionals, HR managers, training managers, HR and training professionals, and all public and private organizations, which from the year 2011 till now in the process of Training and Development Excellence Award, have been present, and about its content, have partial knowledge. Accordingly, 195 persons based on stratified sampling (as it's showed in [Table 6]) were determined, and a questionnaire was distributed among them, and then after follow-up by researchers, 154 questionnaires were collected.
Data collection tool
In this study, the researcher questionnaire developed according to the criteria, sub-criteria, and guideline developed in the model of educational excellence in 27 components (sub-criteria) (as derived from the nine key components [criteria]) is used, it included a total of 124 questions. To determine the reliability of the present study, Cronbach's alpha was used. To this end, after pilot implementation of the questionnaire, its value was obtained 0.892.
| Results|| |
In this section, using SEM, the conceptual model of this study was evaluated, first the correlation between latent variables and observed variables of the study was evaluated, then the fitness of the model by using standard coefficients and t-test and fitness indices of the model were investigated, and, therefore, according to the modified model, the final model presented.
The results of the above table show that between variables, educational designing and planning with training management and training needs assessment with training and development strategy with 0.67, there is the highest level of correlation, and between educational designing and planning and key organizational results with 0.14, the lowest correlations were observed, all of them in the final model have significant correlations with each other (P < 0/01).
H1: Enablers have positive and direct impact on processes in the Training and Development of Excellence Model
Results obtained from SEM showed that the amount of the direct impact of enablers on process has been 0.64, which given that t = 5.5, and is larger than 1.96, this hypothesis at a significance level 0.05 is confirmed, and we can conclude that the enablers have positive effects on the processes.
H2: Enablers have positive and direct impact on results in the Training and Development of Excellence Model
Results obtained from SEM showed that the amount of the direct impact of enablers on results has been 0.64, the amount of its indirect has been 0.33, which given that t = 5.82, and is larger than 1.96, this hypothesis at a significance level 0.05 is confirmed, and we can conclude that the enablers have positive effects on the results.
H3: Processes have positive and direct impact on results in the Training and Development of Excellence Model
Results obtained from SEM showed that the amount of the direct impact of process on results has been 0.52, which given that t = 3.81, and is larger than 1.96, this hypothesis at a significance level 0.05 is confirmed, and we can conclude that the processes have positive effects on the results.
The results of [Table 7] and [Table 8] show that between processes and results, there is the highest correlation of 0.72, and then, between processes and results and enablers after modification the model, there is much correlation of 0.64, which these correlations in the 0.01 level are significant.
|Table 8: The correlation between latent variables in the model after correction|
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To validate TDEM, the proposed conceptual model through SEM method is studied, and the Chi-square Index, the Comparative Fitness Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), the Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI), Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index (AGFI), and Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA), for fitness models, are used. Approach of SEM is a multivariate statistical technique to test structural models (Tan, 2001). This approach combines the observed variables and the latent variables. Analysis of this study uses the (lisrel software)LISREL 8.5 (which uses the maximum likelihood). In the model presented [Figure 3], analysis results related to the structural relationships between the three variables; enablers, processes, and results are shown.
|Figure 3: Standard coefficients of the structural equation model after correction|
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Based on the above figure, it is seen that all the coefficients calculated in the modified model, are significant (1.96 < t). In addition, the results of the table indicate that the model obtained has good adaptive indices and fit indices indicate the suitability of the model. The RMSEA = 0.049 which is considered as good values in the model fitness. Other indicators of fitness, such as NFI, CFI, AGFI, and GFI and, especially the AGFI (0.91), with values close to 1, are considered as optimal parameters of the model fitness [Table 9].
Based on the model of SEM, all the coefficients in the model corrected are significant (1.96 < t). The results indicate that the direct effects of the 0.31–0.64 and the total impact of the 0.52–0.64 are variable. Furthermore, there is only an indirect factor in the model, which its value is equal to 0.33 [Table 10].
|Table 10: Effects of independent variables on the dependent variables (based on the assumptions of the research) in the structural equation model for latent variables|
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| Conclusions and Research Limitations|| |
This study was conducted to validate the Training and Development of Model Excellence. In this study, three key parts of the model; enablers, processes, and results, including nine criteria, using the structural equations modeling were studied. The findings showed that the processes, results, and enablers, respectively, have the highest correlation with each other. The relationship between these three variables and classify them into three categories with enablers, processes, and results in the Baldrige model, and an assortment of enablers and the results are consistent in EFQM.,, Furthermore, GFI obtained is shown good reputation of the model.
The findings showed that designing three key parts of the model and metrics for each sector have strong positive relationships with each other that are valid with Bashar Alsarayreh and Hassan Khudair findings in research to determine the relationships enablers, and the results of the EFQM model year 2012 in Jordan have done is consistent. The Calvo-Mora et al. study also shows relationships between enablers and results. Specifically, enablers of TDEM, including leadership of training and development and culture of training and development, and strategy of training and development have positive and direct relationships with each other. Furthermore, the learning processes, including needs assessment, designing and planning of training, training management, evaluation of training have positive and direct relationships. Correlation between the four process of training and development is consistent with ISO10015 standards. The final part of the TDEM, results, including training results and key organizational results have positive and direct relationships.
The above findings, however, has been tested three main parts of the TDEM, but in order to evaluate all parts of the model, is proposed that using a second-order SEM, all components of the model, including the criteria, sub-criteria, and guidelines, are carefully analyzed and explained. Furthermore, according to the application development of the model since 2012, implementation of this research in all Iranian organizations, and in terms of a variety of business, manufacturing, service, education, healthcare, finance, and insurance, in terms of the ownership of Iranian organizations, private, public, and in terms of the extent of organization, large, small, and medium for other researchers be recommended.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]