|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 123-128
The comparison two kinds of consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce, in a variety of marriage (forced, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional) among couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province
Mina Haghverdi, Asghar Aghaei
Department of Educational Science and Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||17-Mar-2016|
Prof. Asghar Aghaei
Department of Educational Science and Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the types of consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce, in a variety of marriage (forced, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional) among couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province. Method: The study was conducted during winter 2013 to summer 2014. The sample of research was couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan province. Since the divorce by agreement (0.80) as compared to nonadaptive divorce is (0.20), 80 couples of consensual divorce and 35 couples of nonconsensual divorce were selected by available sampling. Method of research was descriptive research tool was questionnaire of marriage (Aghaei, Khanbany and Golparvar, 2013). Result: The results showed that the group of consensual divorce compared to nonconsensual divorce in terms of marriage just only were significant difference (P < 0.05) in rational-emotional marriage. Conclusion: According to this study, results showed that less divorces were in rational and rational-emotional marriages compared with those of compulsory and emotional marriages.
Keywords: Compulsory marriage, consensual divorce, emotional marriage, intellectual marriage, nonconsensual divorce, rational-emotional marriage
|How to cite this article:|
Haghverdi M, Aghaei A. The comparison two kinds of consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce, in a variety of marriage (forced, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional) among couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2016;2:123-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Haghverdi M, Aghaei A. The comparison two kinds of consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce, in a variety of marriage (forced, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional) among couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Jul 14];2:123-8. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2016/2/2/123/168510
| Introduction|| |
Family is the main and original elements of the community, and one of the most natural groups that can solve the physical, emotional, developmental, and spiritual needs of human beings. The importance of family is to the extent that the health and development of any society is dependent on the health and development of families. Marriage causes the relationship between human beings provided that this link is having marital purposes. Conventional link is the relationship between a woman and a man is usually done during the customs and laws. As Islam puts great emphasis on marriage as a sacred bond with the individual and social functions, calls divorce intrinsically repugnant and obscene, however, in cases where important interests require, prohibition is not allowed to divorce. In other words, a group of Islamic tradition have introduced divorce as a very hatred and despicable phenomenon. For example, in the narratives, phrases have been entered that the family that is torn apart by divorce is more evil in the sight of God, and between what is lawful, nothing is hatred of divorce, and God, knows enemy a man who on a whim, divorced women.
Divorce is one of the challenges of married life. The increasing divorce rate in the world and Iran, researchers of family and marriage have prompted to investigate the factors influencing the divorce. Divorce is a complex phenomenon and various factors of personal, social, economic, cultural, and political aims affect on it. Among the factors affecting divorce, personal factors, including genetic and physiological factors, personality, and mental disorders has been more attention to family and marriage experts. Disorders and psychological abnormalities are one of the traumatic factors in the family and marriage. Other factors such as age, sex, education, socioeconomic class, duration of the marriage, the number of children, and employment status, have a great impact on the marital relationship and the desire to divorce. Marriage may be disintegrate due to various reasons such as compatibility problems, behavioral disorders, mental health, addiction and ethical problems and made a divorce. Unfortunately, the rate of divorce and separation is high. The separation and divorce are the process that takes place over time and gradually include high stress, lack of balance, indecision, self-doubt and lack of confidence. The divorce is performed as psychological, legal, economic, and finally divorce in action. The family is not a place for conflict, decay and divorce, but witnessed the growing conflicts and divorce between the couples. So the question that comes to mind is why couples are inconsistent with and end up in divorce and separation? What factors led to the incompatibility? Marriage is an important factor on the psychological well-being, and this effect is positive when the parties agree to demand for which they are married., in a study entitled, marriage and mental health among young people, found that durable and maintain the common life among young people in addition to the physical and mental health is related to informed choices to achieve certain standards of living, in their study concluded that agreeableness is an important factor in relationships, interactions, and the divorce, in a research also concluded that women who have high agreeableness divorced less than narcissistic women who have seen their husbands as a militant man, in their study showed that the “optimism” of one of the spouses affects the behavior of the other spouse, this means that more positive behavior irritates his wife and causing cohesion them, in a research on the quality and health after 20 years of marriage: Analysis of growth, with regard to mental development, it is better that men and women marry above 18 years of age and the age difference is <10 years and the age of men is more than women, carried out research as a descriptive study of the causes and contributing factors in the social damage of divorce in society with regard to the facts and documents. The results also identify predictors of divorce in social damage and aspects of economic, social, cultural, demographic and personality and side effects of this phenomenon in the family, in order to do the necessary planning in community at large, has provided solutions to reduce divorce, on research as factors in the incidence of divorce, studied 424 subjects (212 couples in the city Falavarjan). The results showed that most referential to the prevention and reduction of divorce centers were women who were ages of 31–28 years and men who were between 27 and 24 years. The main causes of divorce were including communication problems, drug addiction, family involvement and mental illness of one the couples, studied long-term bonds of marriage and marital satisfaction in the 156 couples. Their finding supported a positive outlook on the old bonds and longer marriage. Couples who had lived together longer, had less conflict compared with couples who live together for less. Due to the Soaring rate of divorce in Iran and the need for attention to this topic, It is necessary to have a society without problems and damage and healthy during the development process, we should identify the main factors for divorce and find planning and ways to prevent divorce and as well as reduce the effects of the separation of families on social issues and family. Khanbany in his research classified the marriages in cooperation with Aghaei and Golparvar in 2012 by questionnaire of the types of marriage to study and compare their marital satisfaction and psychological well-being in a variety of marriage to identify the factors associated with the selection of a new partner. According to what was said, in this study, researcher tries to study the rate of consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce and compare it with the kind of marriage divorce (compulsory, intellectual, emotional, rational-emotional), among couples referred to the court of divorce, with the aim of a marriage in which there is the highest rate of divorce and to show a new way to male and female and to be taught the correct criteria for choice and it prevents the case of divorce. In light of the above, the aim of the study was to determine the difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce (compulsory, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional), four hypothesis is examined:
- First hypothesis: There is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in emotional marriage
- Second hypothesis: There is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in compulsory marriage
- The third hypothesis: There is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce rational-emotional marriage
- The fourth hypothesis: There is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce rational marriage.
| Methods|| |
Since this study was to compare different types of divorce (consensual and nonconsensual) in a variety of marriage (compulsory, intellectual, emotional, and rational-emotional), this research is a causal comparison. The sample of research was couples of applicant divorce who referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province. The study was conducted during winter 2013 to summer 2014. The sample of the study included 230 subjects (115 couples) referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province. Since the consensual divorce was (80.0) as compared to nonconsensual divorce is (20.0), 80 couples of consensual divorce and 35 couples of nonconsensual divorce were selected by available sampling. The method of research was descriptive. The research tool was questionnaire of marriage (Aghaei, Khanbany and Golparvar, 2012). A total of 240 questionnaires were distributed and run and collected by the researcher. Due to the distortion of numbers of questionnaires and remove samples of single, finally the 230 version of the 115 couples were studied.
Measuring tool: Inventory of types of marriage
The kinds of marriage questionnaire was used to measure the kinds of marriage (Aghaei, Khanbany, Golparvar 2012). This questionnaire is a tool of 52 questions to determine the type of marriage and has four subscales known as compulsory, intellectual, emotional and rational-emotional marriage (each with 13 questions). The answer to the questionnaire is based on the Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to strongly agree = 5). The highest score in each of the four types is represented the preferred choice of the individual. Process of preparing a questionnaire of marriage as follows:First, the issues, the general background, and previous classifications were set in the area of marriage and according to them, all the components of the four were collected and was separated in the form of 60 questions. Then proposed a set of 60 questions that were prepared by the researcher and 52 items were selected by analyzing the content of the questions and were incorporated in the questionnaire. Criteria for selecting questions were: (a) To show the criteria for choosing a spouse. (b) Be compatible with the previous classification. After preparing the prototype, pilot study was on 20 married subjects; and at the end of every questionnaire, preliminary interviews were conducted with participants to review their view toward the easily understood questions and answers in the questionnaire, the functionality of it and placing questionnaire assessing marriage. As well as to assess the content validity, 5 questionnaires give to professors of the university and they were asked to consider it in determining the ability of kinds of marriage. Finally, based on the results of the preliminary study and the views provided by the professors consulted, some editorial changes and the concept was applied in the questionnaire and the final version of the marriage questionnaire was prepared. After confirming the content validity of the questionnaire, in the end, the reliability of the questionnaire components by index Cronbach's alpha was calculated which respectively was 0.81, 0.92, 0.92, 0.87 for the four subscales: Compulsory, intellectual, emotional and rational-emotional marriage.
| Result|| |
In the inferential analysis, multivariate (MANOVA) was used, and all analyzes were performed with SPSS software version 18 (IBM Company- in U.S.A).
As seen in [Table 1], in the female group, 80 (equivalent to 6.69 percent) have been in the consensual divorce and 35 (equivalent to 30.04 percent) have been in the nonconsensual divorce. In the male group, 80 (equivalent to 6.69 percent) have been in the consensual divorce and 35 percent (equivalent to 30.04 percent) have been in the nonconsensual divorce.
|Table 1: Frequency and percent frequency of sample groups depending on the type of divorce and sex|
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In [Table 2] the results of the assumptions of the theory presented by the MANOVA. As seen in [Table 2], the variable of emotional marriage is normally distributed, but equality of error variance between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce have not been met (P< 0.05). The test box (which results are for all types of marriage) did not confirm the amount of variance-covariance matrix equality (8.99). The variable of compulsory marriage is normally distributed, but equality of error variance between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce have not been met (P< 0.05). The variable of rational-emotional marriage is normally distributed, but equality of error variance between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce have not been met (P < 0.05). The variable of rational marriage is normally distributed, but equality of error variance between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce have not been met (P < 0.05). It should be noted that MANOVA relatively strength against the violation of assumptions and results can be trusted. In [Table 3], presented the mean and standard deviation of compulsory, rational, emotional, rational-emotional marriages.
|Table 2: Results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov (normally distributed variables) and Levine test (equal variances)|
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|Table 3: The mean and SD of compulsory, rational, emotional, rational--emotional marriages|
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As can be seen in [Table 3], the average of emotional marriage in consensual divorce group is 3.09 and in nonconsensual divorce group is 2.96. The average of compulsory marriage in consensual divorce group is 4.08 and in nonconsensual divorce group is 4.2. The average of rational-emotional marriage in consensual divorce group is 3.22 and in nonconsensual divorce group is 3.84. The average of rational marriage in consensual divorce group is 3.49 and in nonconsensual divorce group is 3.69. The results of MANOVA on the compulsory, rational, emotional, rational-emotional marriages is presented in [Table 4].
|Table 4: The results of multivariate analysis of variance on the compulsory, rational, emotional, rational--emotional marriages|
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As can be seen in [Table 4], there is no significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two groups in emotional marriage. Based on the results presented in [Table 4], hypothesis 1 that there is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in emotional marriage is not approved. Based on the results presented in [Table 4], hypothesis 2 that there is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in compulsory marriage is not approved. Based on the results presented in this table there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) in a rational-emotional marriage between the two groups. Chi-square eta is equal to 19.0. This means that 19 percent of the difference in the rational-emotional marriage is related to consensual and nonconsensual marriage. The test can also equal 1. And it means that MANOVA with 100 percent detected the difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in rational-emotional marriage. So, hypothesis 3 that there is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce rational-emotional marriage is approved. Also, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two groups in rational marriage. Based on the results presented in [Table 4], hypothesis 4 that there is a significant difference between consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce in rational marriage is not approved.
| Conclusion|| |
The aim of this study was to compare the types of divorce (consensual and nonconsensual) in a variety of marriages (compulsory, rational, emotional, rational-emotional) in couples who referred to Justice Department of Isfahan province. Because the choice of spouse is large and varied, no marriage is merely a kind of cover, there is no marriage, and that marriage can be seen in the other divisions. For this purpose, we use the term of preferred marriage. Naturally, any marriage is a feature of other forms of marriage. In this research, based on prefer of couples in choose, four types of marriage mentioned and for the first time have been compared and analyzed whit types of divorce (consensual and nonconsensual).
According to [Table 4], there is not a significant difference between two groups in emotional marriage. In the explanation of results can be said that hypothesis was not confirmed. The finding is in line with these researches: Findings of  have shown that one of the predictors of divorce is low age in marriage, showed that, married women who are younger than 18 years old were twice at risk of failing marriages than women who were over 25 years of age. showed that, In considering the appropriate age and the age difference between marriage in women and men affect the status of marriage. This view is consistent with because, in emotional marriage, fewer people understand the consequences of their marriage and, therefore, makes negative emotions. Boys and girls at the peak of maturity and motivation due to low physiological age at first sight to be interested in each other and believed that person is who have lived with him or her in dreams and fantasies for years. But after marriage and subside intense emotions and are aware that there is very little in common between himself and his wife. To explain the results of [Table 4], there is no significant difference between the two groups in compulsory marriage. In explaining the results, we can say that people in all consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce have no difference between the two groups in compulsory marriage so this hypothesis was not confirmed. This can be said in compulsory marriage and according to conventional wisdom or the rule of patriarchal control over women or the relationship of the family system, the decision to choose a spouse primarily is responsible for other family members (father, mother or other family members). In this type of marriage, regardless of the emotional and the rational, purely as a result of psychological pressure or physical force unwanted marriage happened. On the other hand, given that men are primarily the responsibility of earning a living and welfare of the family and the men, and the families of the women, consider the poor economic conditions of families and patriarchal thoughts or beliefs and traditional culture of marriage, so the girls are under pressure to marry. These girls should accept the decisions of the family because they are young and have low education and lack of authority and freedom of action, even if they have no interest in marriage or the marriage is not reasonable. But for other types of marriage, including emotional, rational and emotional – rational, the girls had their will to get married and the family will not have pressure to choose. The findings of the study is in line with findings of Oker (2012), which showed that in addition to physical and mental health, informed choices to meet specified criteria in life is concerned and related to sustainability and the preservation of marriage among young people. According to the results of [Table 4], there is significant difference (P < 0.05) between the two groups in rational-emotional, and this hypothesis is proven. In this type of marriage, innate desire, will lead the heart to the other side and reason with their prestamp of approval on it. This type of marriage can provide mental health of family, the heart and the intellect is proof enough for the joys and hardships of life. We can say that this marriage happened with the heart and mind, they will be separated, as are married. Finally, according to the results of [Table 4], there is no a significant difference between the two groups in a rational marriage. The couples in this group married based on foresight and their marriage is like a transaction and is always associated with obsession and suspicion. Love has no position in this marriage and financial, social and family interests, positions, occupation, etc., are the basis of choice. Despite the theoretical and practical contributions of this study, like other research, this study has limitations that future research should consider them. The sample of study was couples of applicant divorce were referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan province so in generalizing the results to the rest of the country should be taken precautions for the importance of cultural and social fields in divorce. Since the methodology of this study is (causal comparison), so we can conclude there is no cause and effect.
In the following proposals research is conducted:
- Since the study was conducted in couples of applicant divorce were referred to the Justice Department of Isfahan Province, the proposal is to put it in other cities and provinces in the country
- Because of the many variables involved in the process of rising divorce, we suggest that review the effects of variables such as the consequences of divorce in children and future generations, welcomes the absence of bad compared to the past few decades, and demographic characteristics, differences in age, financial aspects and…
- Considering that in this study only investigated the consensual divorce and nonconsensual divorce, also investigated the proposed divorce, emotional, economic, parental, social, psychological, and so on
- We offer to advice centers before couples therapy, using existing tools, identify the type of marriage those who are on the verge of marriage and anticipate and assess the level of marital satisfaction, psychological well-being and the possibility of divorce.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]