• Users Online: 552
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 129-133

The moderating effect of positive humanistic virtues on psychological capital and couples' marital adaptation: Provide a new conceptual model


1 Department of Psychology, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Psychology, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University; Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
Maryam Lolaki
Department of Psychology, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.178869

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Aim: One of the most important factors affecting the family durability is the good entente between family members and especially the couples. Marital adaptation would be the foundation for good family function, facilitation of parental role, economic growth, and life satisfaction. In this regard, the purpose of this study which is a descriptive correlational one is to investigate the moderating effect of positive, humanistic virtues on psychological capital and couples' adaptation. Methods: The research method is descriptive and correlational. The population of this study was all the couples in Isfahan, Iran in which 384 were selected as the sample by convenience. The researcher has used three questionnaires as instruments of the study as follow: (a) Marital adaptation questionnaire, (b) psychological capital questionnaire, and (c) humanistic virtues questionnaire. In order to statistically analyze the data, Pearson correlational coefficient, step-by-step regression and path analysis formulas were applied. Result: Results showed that there is positively significant Pearson correlation between marital adaptations, self-efficacy, optimism, and endurance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Among psychological capital variables, self-efficacy was a good predictor for marital adaptation. It was revealed that factors such as self-efficacy, bravery, and moderation has direct and endurance has an indirect effect on marital adaptation.

Keywords: Humanistic virtue, marital adaptation, psychological capital


How to cite this article:
Lolaki M, Atashpour SH, Vaziri S, Jafari MR. The moderating effect of positive humanistic virtues on psychological capital and couples' marital adaptation: Provide a new conceptual model. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2016;2:129-33

How to cite this URL:
Lolaki M, Atashpour SH, Vaziri S, Jafari MR. The moderating effect of positive humanistic virtues on psychological capital and couples' marital adaptation: Provide a new conceptual model. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Sep 21];2:129-33. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2016/2/2/129/178869


  Introduction Top


Family is a social system of people living together by marital, procreation, and parenting relations. This social system has played an important role for growth, and development of human's social life during the history. Undoubtedly, the family is the most important and fundamental organization for the growth and welfare in physical and psychological aspects of the humans' life. This is the factor to achieve a physical, social, and mental balance in life.[1] Minuchin and Fishman,[2] believe that family is the most effective system in behavioral aspects. In fact, this system not only forms adaptive behaviors in humans, but also abnormal behaviors can be the outcome of this system. Bakhshi Pour [3] analyzing different point of views in human's communication network points that the first and most direct communication network all people deal with is family relations network. However; any mental health problems and miss behaviors would be the result of family relations. That is why considering family issues and their efficiency is increasingly noticeable.[4]

Family is not just a group of people gathering together in a physical and mental atmosphere. Nowadays, this is taken to account as a sociocultural system. In such system, members are in close relations to each other through bilinear emotional aspects.[5] Family is the upbringing center of love which is the basic foundation of the human's social life. The most important factor in this system is the marital adaptation.[6] Adaptation is that of effective behavior in a human being with the physical and mental environment in a way that not only unconsciously matches to changes in the environment, but also can be effective and make positive changes in the environment.[7],[8]

Regardless of the important role of sociocultural factors in marital adaptation, some personal factors also have a strong effect on it.[6] Studies have shown that marital adaptation would have an effect on person's general adaptation. In other words; couples with higher marital adaptation, have more self-steam can more easily adapt to their social life.[9]

One of the most important factors affecting on family growth and survival is well relations and entente between couples. This marital adaptation is the foundation for success and well function in family, a facilitator of parental role and a factor for economic growth and satisfaction in life. On the other hand; marital incompatibility would cause in those of above mentioned aspects, social relations, socio moral deviances, and wane in cultural values in couples.[8],[9],[10]

Studies showed that there are so many factors affecting on marital satisfaction such as optimism and happiness [11],[12],[13] psychological welfare personality factors mental health.[14] In this regard; investigation of these factors seems to be important. These investigations can be useful to minimize the formation of risky families and maximize successful marriages which helps the prevention of negative outcomes in families.

Maslow [15] mentioned that in psychology we try to focus on the dark side of abilities. He suggested the equilibration of psychology focusing on aspects such as growth, satisfaction, optimism, and actualization of human's capacity.[16] Many years before, Martin Seligman, great psychologist and researcher and the head of American Psychology Association established positive psychology movement and paved the way for the study of personal, group, and organizational abilities which could be applied in order to get succeed. Although modern psychology had been started in order to help people with mental disorders, people's abilities identification and development were the tasks in psychology. However, the favor during these years has been toward the first phase; that is the treatment of mental illnesses.[17] In fact, positive psychology focuses on abilities and their growth and development.[17] Seligman [18] the way for this orientation to shift the focus from weak points toward strong points.

Psychological resource is a network which is rooted from positive psychology and is made up of self-efficacy, optimism, hope, and endurance in which proposed by Luthans. Consequently, we can say that positive psychology is focused on human's optimal functions and positive organizational behaviors.[19] Optimistic people tend to keep their positive expectations about the future happenings. These people believe that positive consequences will absolutely happen, and meanwhile they believe that their personal ability will result in success. These optimistic people are called self-efficient. Optimistic people expect positive consequences out of their personal ability.[19]

Positive, humanistic virtues are positive aspects of a person's personality including factors which result in his success. Psychologists of this school have presented character strengths and virtues (CSV) classificatory system in contrast to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. In CSV they classify human's abilities into six categories as follow: (a) Wisdom, (b) bravery, (c) justice, (d) sublimation, (e) humanism, and (f) moderation.[18]

As it was mentioned before, in contrast to other dimensions of psychology, positive psychology focuses on positive aspects of human's personality. One of the basis of this dimension of psychology is positive, humanistic virtue which is the indicator of factors resulting people's success and prosperity.[20] Specifying the importance of this subject matter, it should be stated that the society would form under the shadow of the salubrious family. Psychological resource is regarded as the positive aspect of the mental health. In this regard; it can be effective on the formation of positive behaviors in marital life. Besides, researches on couple's relations such as adaptation and marital life quality can pave the way for politicians and family counselors to beneficiary use the results in order to fortify family relations. This study is designed to investigate the relationship between psychological capital and marital adaptation regarding the modulator role of humanistic virtues.


  Methods Top


This study is a kind of descriptive and multidimensional correlational one in which the population are couples referred to Isfahan's consoling centers, Iran in 2013. The sample was selected using Cochran formula and finally 384 couples were selected as the sample of the study. The cluster sampling were applied in which different regions in Isfahan were divided into six parts and then three [1],[5],[6] were randomly chosen. Then cultural and consoling centers were selected and participants were chosen by convenience sampling method.

The researcher in this study has used three questionnaires as follow: (a) Psychological capital questionnaire, (b) marital adaptation scale, and (c) humanistic virtues questionnaire.

Psychological resources questionnaire

This questionnaire has been proposed by Luthans [21] consisting 24 items which measures four elements such as (a) hope, (b) endurance, (c) optimism, and (d) self-efficacy. Items in this questionnaire are designed in 6 grade Likert scale (extremely agree to extremely disagree). The validity had been measured 0.80. The researcher in this study also has measured item's consistency using Cronbach alpha as 0.83, 0.77, 0.76, and 0.8, respectively and total consistency of 0.88.

Marital adaptation scale

This 32-item scale which measures the total marital adaptation has been proposed. This questionnaire is a 6-options Likert scale (always agree to always disagree). The total score of this questionnaire is 0–150. Couples with 101 or less are not adaptable, and others are known as adaptable couples. The validity reported by Spanire is 0.96 and reliability was reported as 0.86 based on couple's relation and using Pearson correlation with marital adaptation questionnaire proposed measured item's consistency of 0.96 and Cronbach consistency of 0.92 in Iran. Reliability of this questionnaire was reported 0.85 using correlation with marital adaptation questionnaire also reported consistency of 0.84. The researcher in this study also measured 0.92 consistency for this instrument.

Humanistic virtues questionnaire

In order to measure positive, humanistic virtues, the 24-item questionnaire designed by Kohbori and Atashpour [22] was applied. This questionnaire like the other ones was 5-graded Likert scale (1 = completely agree – 5 = completely disagree). In order to measure the validity of this questionnaire factor analysis were applied, then based on factorials more than 0.4, three questions were deleted (questions 12, 15, 19 because of factorials more than one factorial and weakener role on Cronbach alpha) and six factors such as knowledge (five questions), bravery (four questions), humanism (two questions), justice (three questions), eminency (six questions), and moderation were remained.

In this analysis Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin for above mentioned factors (knowledge, bravery, humanism, justice, moderation, and eminency) in Kohbori and Atashpour [22] were 0.79, 0.73, 0.64, 0.72, 0.63, and 0.75, respectively. The consistency of items were 0.79, 0.65, 0.73, 0.72, 0.61, and 0.71, respectively and total consistency was 0.87.

All of the questionnaires were answered by sample group, then Pearson correlation coefficient and step-by-step regression analysis for determining the modular effect of humanistic virtues were applied. In order to statistically analyze the data, Statistical package for social science Version 21 was used.


  Results Top


Data provided in [Table 1] shows that among the sample group of 384, the most frequency is for the interval of 31–40 years (161 participants, 41.9 percent out of the total sample) and the least was for the last interval (51 year, 43 participants, 11.2 percent) for both man and woman groups. Data for the sample of the study are shown in the Table based on age and frequency.
Table 1: Age frequency percentage

Click here to view


As it can be seen in [Table 2], there is positively significant Pearson correlation between marital adaptation, self-efficacy, and patience (P < 0.01, 0.05). However; there is no significant relation between marital adaptation and hope.
Table 2: Correlation matrix for psychological capital factors and marital adaptation

Click here to view


As it can be seen in [Table 3], psychological capital was an indicator of marital satisfaction. The multidimensional correlation coefficient was 0.192, and 0.037 correlation coefficient square was obtained which shows 3.7 percent changes in a marital adaptation based on self-efficacy.
Table 3: Multidimensional correlation coefficient between psychological resources and marital satisfaction based on step-by-step regression

Click here to view


Results in [Table 4] shows that self-efficacy would be a good indicator for marital adaptation among other psychological capital. Beta shows that increasing standard unit in self-efficacy would result in 0.192 increase in marital adaptation.
Table 4: Standard and nonstandard indexes for marital adaptation based on psychological capital

Click here to view


[Table 5] shows self-efficacy among other independent variables has directly more significant effect on marital adaptation than others (sig 0.179). While, optimism hope and endurance have no significant effect on marital adaptation. Optimism and hope are deleted in the experimental analysis because of no significant effect on modular factors. Among humanistic virtues, which were considered as modular factors, bravery, and moderation (respectively with the effectiveness of 0.153 and 0.138) had a significant effect on marital adaptation. Meanwhile, variables such as wisdom, humanism, justice, and excellence have no significant effect on marital adaptation. That is why these variables are not considered. Self-efficacy has a significant effect on justice (sig = − 0.248) and endurance which was remained in data analysis, has a significant effect on bravery and justice (sig = 0.153, 0.151 respectively).
Table 5: Beta coefficient, direct, indirect and general effect of independent variables on marital adaptation

Click here to view



  Discussion and Conclusion Top


This study was done in order to analyze the modular effect of humanistic virtues on the relationship between psychological capital and marital adaptation. The results obtained in this study showed that there is positively significant Pearson correlation between marital adaptation and self-efficacy, optimism and endurance.

The results were also positively in relation with the obtained results of some previously done studies such as:[2],[3],[5],[12]

According to Luthans [17] self-efficacy is considered as one self-belief about his own ability to get prepared for successful achievement to his own goals.

Both man and woman propend to get to a worth and special position in their life. This is the concern for all of the people in both social life and their family, and certainly this position would be the cause of dissatisfactions in their marital life. On the other hand, providing this position for each other can somehow satisfy them in their needs for self decadence. Efficacy would increase by positive feedbacks. Marital relations would form based on their understandings in different marital situations, and if positive feedbacks are obtained, it would have a positive effect on their self-efficacy. Meanwhile, if the feedbacks are presented in an inappropriate form, it would have a negative effect on self-efficacy and causes to oppositions in order to decrease tension and stresses and finally results in a decrease of marital adaptation.

Optimistic people can overcome their problems with positive expectations.[13],[16],[17] They use predicator methods for situational adaptations. That is why they are more efficient. With this in mind, based on the data provided in this study, optimism helps marital adaptation.

The sense of self-efficacy increases the sense of aptitude in marital life, and consequently marital adaptation will be formed. Then, we can state that self-efficacy positively can effect on marital adaptation.

The data for path analysis revealed that although among psychological capital which are independent variables, self-efficacy has directly positive effect on marital adaptation, optimism and hope has no effect and as a result, were deleted in path analysis model. Among humanistic virtues which were arbitrary variable, bravery, and moderation had positive effect on marital adaptation, but knowledge, humanism, justice, and eminence did not have any significant effect on marital adaptation and as a result, they were deleted in path analysis model.

This study seems to be such important because of no previously done related literature. Thus, specifying findings of this study we can conclude that humanistic virtues are positive factors which have an important role in relations recuperation gaining to worthy and realistic view of social life and people. Humanistic virtues makes good sense of others and the environment in people, so the aim of this study was to find a significant relation between psychological capital and humanistic virtues and positively find it is effect on marital life.

It can be said that bravery as a concept of having the courage to face with problems has a modular effect on marital adaptation and consequently causes improvement in marital relations in couples. In fact, bravery is facing with problems which results in higher amounts of marital satisfaction. Besides, modesty which means to have moderated behavior and taking logical decisions out of any judgment and prejudice has a modular effect on marital adaptation and endurance.

This study had some limitations such as the sample which was focused on Isfahan, Iran and the generalizability of the results should be done cautiously. For further studies, it is highly recommended to use humanistic virtues as a modular variable in other psychological factors with marital adaptation to pave the way for further investigations in this unknown aspect of human relations [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Research model approved

Click here to view


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Wood M. Association of stressful life events and marital quality. Psychol Rep 1996;76:112-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Minuchin S, Fishman HC. Where is the family in narrative family therapy? J Marital Fam Ther 2011;24:397-403.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Pour B. Happiness and marital satisfaction among women teachers and housewives in Arak, Iran. Behav Sci 2010;2:9-21.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
DeMaris A, Mahoney A, Pargament KI. Sanctification of marriage and general religiousness as buffers of the effects of marital inequity. J Fam Issues 2012;31:120-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Mann N. The effect of the program to improve the relationship between the marital satisfaction of both working. J Consult Res News 2010;13:35-59.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Barnhill L. Healthy family systems. Fam Coord 2002;28:94-100.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Lederer A, Gleitman LR, Gleitman H. Verbs of a feather flock together: Semantic information in the structure of maternal speech. Cogn Dev 1999;41:277-97.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Naser O. The Effect of Education on Marriage Enrichment Satisfaction of Couples Isfahan. Master's Thesis, Faculty of Education and Psychology; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Molazadeh J. Coping styles and marital adjustment in the control children. J Psychol 2011;6:255-75.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yarmohammadian A, Hashemi NB, Asgari K. The effect of emotional intelligence and life skills training on marital adjustment young couples. Knowl Res Appl Psychol 2011;12:3-12.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sinha P, Mukerjee N. Marital adjustment and space orientation. J Soc Psychol 1997;130:633-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Wilson CM. How does marriage affect physical and psychological health? Soc Sci Res 2005;38:201-12.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Roberts LJ. Fire and ice in marital communication: Hostile and distancing behaviors as predictors of marital distress. J Marriage Fam 2000;62:693-707.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Yancy RJ. Resilience and adjustment to marriage. J Marital Fam Ther 2009;11:48-56.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Maslow AH. The Farther Reaches of Human Nature. Publications Penguin 1993.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Avey JB, Luthans F. Impact of psychological ositive psychological sychological capital on employee well-being. J Occup Health Psychological psychology 2010;15:17-28.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Luthans F. The need for and meaning of psychological positive organization behavior. J Organ Behav 2002;23:695-706.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Seligman M, Parks AC, Steen T. A balanced Psychology and a full life. In: Huppert F, Baylis N, Keverne B, editors. European Psychologist 2005. p. 84-275.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Avey JB, Luthans F, Jensen S. Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating stress and turnover. Hum Resour Manage 2009;48:677-93.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Petersen RC, Aisen PS, Beckett LA. Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 2009;256:183-94.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Luthans F, Youssef CM. Psychological Capital Developing the Human Competitive Edge. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Psychological Press; 2007. p. 112-132.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Kohbori Z, Atashpour SH. Positive Human Virtues Moderating Effect on the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Justice Counterproductive Behavior and Innovative Practices. Dissertation at the Graduate Level Department of Psychology Azad University of Isfahan; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 22
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion and C...
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1253    
    Printed26    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded129    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]