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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 82-87

The comparison of critical thinking skills for juniors' girl students in smart and ordinary schools


Department of Education, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Date of Web Publication17-Mar-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramezan Jahanian
Department of Education, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.178862

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  Abstract 

Aim: This research was carried out by method of comparative-reasonability in order to compare the critical thinking skill for juniors' girl students in ordinary and smart school. Methods: The population of the study was 2,705 juniors' student in schools of district one in Shahre Rey at 2013–2014. The case of study was 338 students who were selected randomly on the basis of the Cochran's formula. The tool of measurements was the test of the critical thinking. In order to analysis of the data, we used descriptive and inferential statistics. Result: The conclusions showed that the average of the score for critical thinking at deduction components, deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning in favor of smart schools and in dimensions of analysis and evaluation in favor of ordinary schools. Conclusions: In other word Information and Communications Technology in smart schools effect to critical thinking skill for juniors' girl students.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Information and Communications Technology, smart school


How to cite this article:
Jahanian R, Rajabi H. The comparison of critical thinking skills for juniors' girl students in smart and ordinary schools. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2016;2:82-7

How to cite this URL:
Jahanian R, Rajabi H. The comparison of critical thinking skills for juniors' girl students in smart and ordinary schools. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Sep 21];2:82-7. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2016/2/2/82/178862


  Introduction Top


Nowadays some of the schools, in order to use of modern communicative and informative technologies for education, joined to smart schools and it is necessary that the function of these schools in different dimensions compare with another school and in next deciding according to base of research finding must be decided in manner of reasonable and accuracy. As for undeniably role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and use of it in education system and the importance of critical thought skill in one hand and the other hand the necessary of handling of one research in this field must be required to think about the result of it that cause it product education software and use this technology education for citizens more purposely. One of the skills that taught in each system to students is thinking skill. To do this, teacher must try to promote thinking and reasoning skills for students and propel them from carelessness learning content to thinking step and train them to find good solution in basis of learning with thinking: So that students can use acquired skills in different courses and life situations because students life is not limited, and thinking skills must be as one of the most important education factors. In other word, educational institutions should focus on learning rather than teaching about thinking. In such a situation, it is possible that the resumption of thinking trend continued. In this way to do the main goal for an education system that is growing of thinking for students, the teacher must help to grow and extend the process of thinking and criticism about the student.[1]

In fact educational institutes because of their main role to educate future generation are one the most important and fundamental institute in society. One of the main the concern of educational systems is transferring of science to the next generation. Additional production of science and information follow changing about culture, society, economic in scope of new problem and consequently new expectations for educational system and lead to them to this goal to train them to transfer science and information to people for method of learning and asking. Nowadays students must use critical thinking skill and method of appropriate learning for better decision and society problem solving.[2]

In fact the new mission of educational systems proportionate to new features, enable new generation to serious excursion, to guide and to aim in informative source is unlimited that the most important prerequirements are the person question and unknown.[3]

Gaining access to these educational systems depend upon the existence of active and creative learner that includes different social skills specifically critical thinking and question about necessary science and awareness.[4]

The able of critical thinking in this day is a period of Information Technology (IT) that its location is higher than before. Nowadays the mission of organizations especially education is equalization to the rate of changing. In fact in other word, it can be said that each period need especially education that related to it and future education in the base of ability of creating, thinking and scholarship. The skills of upper levels, continual and fast changing about innovations, variety of education, individual training, group deciding, focus to local and mass requirements, face to problem directly and solve it immediately by thinking, use of knowledge and advance technology, long-distance education, use of computer and internet and all of mention above are the characteristics of education in 21st century.[5]

Nowadays we expect to education that supply the conditions of active and co-operational learning. In order to do this approach, we must change former methods. Old method education can't answer to variable educational requirements in this time. So one of the efforts of educational organizations is related to ITC and usage it in courses.[6]

ITC effect to learning considerably that includes the change of students and teachers' role, more cooperation of student with their classmate. More use of foreign sources, growing and improvement of drawing skills and presentation of maters.[7]

The overall role of the student in the learning environment based on ICT is changing and in this process students are active and product knowledge.[8]

Researchers believe that the use of digital tools such as computers can help student understanding of himself and his sociability. So that the use of computer networks in schools facilitate teamwork, cooperation, and social relationship. Let's why one of the topics that the protagonists of the development of IT in education discussed is in this way we can provide equal opportunities for the train to different levels of society especially for dispossessed levels.[9]

Research's of Kapren showed that the levels of student critical thinking increased, and their attitudes toward to ICT improved positively.[10]

Research's of Solfer et al. showed that the use of simultaneous conference influences on strengthening students' critical thinking.[11]

Research's of Chu in a study that aim to education of thoughtful teaching and improvement of critical thinking are done by use of a computer simulation program, showed that computer simulation to teach overall critical thinking skills are useful tool to thoughtful teaching and before becoming a teacher should receive training to teach students critical thinking.[12]

Research's of Keronback in his study conclude that online and simultaneous communication to improve to critical thinking skills.[13]

Research's of Tompson et al. showed that the virtual learning through information network (Internet) has little impact on critical thinking skills.[14]

Research's of Tedfoton conclude that teaching by computer impact to the reinforcement of critical thinking.[15]

Research's of Sringam et al. showed that arguments based on a personal computer can replace face to face discussions, without harm to the learning outcomes of students. The students grow their critical thinking skills through the integration of ICT in teaching-learning. And the acceptance of the integration of ICT in the process of teaching-learning doesn't harm to students academic performance and it cause to improve the critical thinking skills in small groups.[16]

Research's of Hopson showed that learning environments rich by the technology of growing increase the thinking skills at a high level. Technology tools help to students to move to use of science rather than mere learn knowledge and familiarity with teachers' role technology resources have positive and significant effect on students' attitude in field of motivation, creativity, and importance of computer.[17]

Research's of Ghaderi conclude that in all of the skills there is a significant difference between average of critical thinking skills at smart school and students at ordinary schools, of course, this difference is in favor of students at smart schools.[18]

Research's of Ebrahim Abadi in his research entitled by the comparison of two teaching methods by the web and traditional method of learning and progress motivation of students showed that teaching effect by web in high learning levels and significantly it cause increase the motivation of academic progress among the students.[19]

According to information provided by this study to compare the critical thinking skills of students in smart and ordinary schools through the following hypothesis:

  1. There is difference among the students' critical thinking skills in smart and ordinary schools
  2. There is difference among the students' critical thinking skills in dimension of analysis in smart and ordinary schools
  3. There is difference among the students' inference of critical thinking skills in smart and ordinary schools
  4. There is difference among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of evaluation in smart and ordinary school
  5. There is different among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of deductive reasoning in smart and ordinary schools
  6. There is different among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of inductive reasoning in smart and ordinary schools.



  Methods Top


This research is done by the method of comparative-reasonability compare the critical thinking skill for female students in smart and ordinary junior high schools. The society of study was the students of junior high schools in Shahre Rey district one in 2013–2014 and the number of them were 2,750. The case of study was 338 students that selected randomly by the method of Cochran's formula. The tools of measure data were test of critical thinking skills in California. This test includes 34 multiple choice questions that measure critical thinking skills base. The test of California critical thinking skills to measure critical thinking and its recognition micro scales that means the follow items are used; analysis, inference, evaluation, deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. It includes 20 questions that contend four choices from 34 multiple choice questions and 14 questions that contend five choices questions. Examiners select the best answer among the choices according by their own judgment. There is a standard key to score. In this key is considered one accurate answer for each question and for each accurate answer one score. The range of changes of scores will be 0–34. The extension of questions contend all of the cases that meaning analysis from one sentence up to more complicated combining, measure the critical thinking skills. The answer to some cases of this questionnaire is required to proper understanding of a series defaults, and answer to other items is required to evaluation and logical justification of a conclusion. The answer to other group of questions is required to complaint to offered inferences that is justification and evaluation about these complaints. In order to draw for this test, knowledge public them is assumed that simply in the conclusion of natural maturity, and it is accessible in guidance and high schools. None of contended knowledge at the university level that is for allocated courses that is not required to answer these questions. Permanent of critical thinking skills California test is done at the study, permanent of critical thinking skills California test is reported by use of the method of Koder-Rechardson between 0.68 and 0.70 (Fashion 1992).

Eslami reported 0.788, permanent of these tools in Iran and the society of students by means of reexamine.[20]

Bigdeli reported 0.73, permanent of this form by means of reexamine in the range of 15 days.[21]

Asgari reported 0.68 by means of Koder-Rechardson and 0.63 by means of reexamine in the range of 4 months about permanent of critical thinking skills test. So for research destinations permanent for a test is 0.6-0.75.[22]

The content of California critical thinking skills test is emphasized by Fashion 1998 and Eslami 2003. In this research, the analysis of data is done by to method, the first is a description (mean, standard deviation …) and the second is inferential statistics by use of t-test for independent groups.


  Result Top


  1. There is a difference among the students' critical thinking skills in smart and ordinary schools.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaning that obtained by t-test (0.000) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills in smart schools is more than ordinary schools [Table 1].
  2. There is a difference among the students' critical thinking skills in the dimension of analysis in smart and ordinary schools.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaning that obtained by t-test (0.001) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills in the dimension of analysis for two groups in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills in the dimension of analysis in ordinary schools is more than smart schools [Table 2].
  3. There is a difference among the students' inference of critical thinking skills in smart and ordinary schools.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaningful that obtained by t-test (0.000) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills of inference in two groups in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills of inference in a group of smart schools is more than ordinary schools [Table 3].
  4. There is a difference among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of evaluation in smart and ordinary school.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaningful that obtained by t-test (0.000) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills in the dimension of evaluation in two groups in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills in the dimension of evaluation in a group of ordinary schools is more than smart schools [Table 4].
  5. There is different among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of deductive reasoning in smart and ordinary schools.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaningful that obtained by t-test (0.001) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills in the dimension of deductive reasoning in two groups in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills in the dimension of deductive reasoning in group of smart schools is more than ordinary schools [Table 5].
  6. There is different among the students' critical thinking skills in dimensions of inductive reasoning in smart and ordinary schools.

    The conclusions show that the level of meaningful that obtained by t-test (0.000) is lower to 0.05. It shows that there is a meaningful difference among the scores of critical thinking skills in the dimension of inductive reasoning in two groups in smart and ordinary schools. Some means of this index in two groups show that the rate of critical thinking skills in the dimension of inductive reasoning in group of smart schools is more than ordinary schools [Table 6].
Table 1: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index in two groups of smart and ordinary schools

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Table 2: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index in dimension of analysis for two groups in smart and ordinary schools

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Table 3: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index of inference in two groups of smart and ordinary schools

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Table 4: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index in dimension of evaluation in two group of smart and ordinary schools

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Table 5: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index in dimension of deductive reasoning in two groups of smart and ordinary schools

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Table 6: The conclusion that related to comparison of critical thinking skills index in dimension of inductive reasoning in two groups of smart and ordinary schools

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  Discussion and Conclusions Top


The founding that related to first theory showed that the students' critical thinking skill in smart schools is more than ordinary schools. The result of research is similar to the study of Yucho [12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16] Rampa Kapren.[10] Also, these results emphasize the research of Ghaderi [18] and Ebrahim Abadi.[19] In explanation of this theory can be said that some educational environments that cause encouragement to the discussion ask and thinking to result in grow of critical thinking skills.

The founding that related to second theory showed that students' critical thinking in ordinary schools in the dimension of analysis is more than smart schools. The result of research is not similar to the study of Yucho [12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16], Rampa Kapren,[10] Ghaderi [18] and Ebrahim Abadi [19] but it is similar to the study of Tompson et al.[14] In explanation of this theory can be said that the rate of analysis in dimensions of students' critical thinking in ordinary schools is more than smart schools. In other words, the environment of smart schools does not effect to grow of analysis micro scale that can be thought to a lot of factors and solve the problems. It can be pointed to personality, the atmosphere of class and the role of teacher.

The founding that related to third theory showed that students' critical thinking in smart schools in the dimension of inference is more than ordinary schools. The result of research is similar to the study of Yucho,[12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16] Rampa Kapren,[10] Ghaderi [18] and Ebrahim Abadi [19] but it is not similar to the study of Tompson et al.[14] In fact in class online communication, students cooperate with each other to make science net in the base of structuralism theory. In this work group, students share science nets that include real world cases and their experiences. Also, they acquire the ability of inference of new science by use of dynamical information that transmitted by online communications.

The founding that related to fourth theory showed that students' critical thinking skills in ordinary schools in the dimension of evaluation are more than smart schools. The result of research is not similar to the study of Yucho,[12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16] Rampa Kapren,[10] Ghaderi [18] and Ebrahim Abadi [19] but it is similar to the study of Tompson et al.[14] In other words, the environment of smart schools doesn't effect to grow of evaluation micro scale that can be thought to a lot of factors and solve the problems. It can be pointed to personality, the atmosphere of class and the role of teacher.

The founding that related to fifth theory showed that students' deductive reasoning thinking skill in smart schools in the dimension of evaluation is more than ordinary schools. The result of research is similar to the study of Yucho,[12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16] Rampa Kapren [10] but it is not similar to the study of Tompson et al.[14] This result is similar to the founding of Solfer et al.,[11] Keronback [13] and Tedfoton.[15]

The founding that related to sixth theory showed that students' critical thinking skill in smart schools in the dimension of inductive reasoning is more than ordinary schools. The result of research is similar to the study of Yucho,[12] Hopson,[17] Sringam,[16] Rampa Kapren,[10] but it is not similar to the study of Tompson et al.[14] This result is similar to the founding of Solfer et al.,[11] Keronback [13] and Tedfoton.[15]

To explain the result of fifth and sixth theories can be said that the program of teaching in smart schools to the students cover wide range of cases such as moral concepts, train logic, concept of methodology, deduction, induction, problem-solving and method of research. To the interest of this program from the method of exploration and research training and immersion the students in the process of outstanding characteristic.

The acquainted results are a considerable point for education authorities in order to the attention to developing of smart schools in a new era. Smart schools are great achievement of ICT extension in educational programs that its' real benefits and effects and results, not only in the educational environment will have its effects, but will be new developments with real experiences in the children's lives and their future. Youth growth, educational and national development depends on particular attention to the development of human resources in the education. If we want to define the train, to fertile the creativity, to increase the efficiency of man force and to obtain the goals and high standards of performance, development of intellectual and moral commitment to the mission of education in today's transitional world and the uncertain future century, it created for each people and authorities and education anchors. Application of new technologies in our education system, increase the student performance. And it is possible to create a method of continuous learning in formal and informal learning out of the class. We hope to witness the fast and active movement to get smart the train in Iran by extension and implementation of the plan across the country. We will reach to the real quality of education that each student select the best way in life in a base of ability, talent and interest. In order to achieve pedagogy great goals, the education must be got out from routine.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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