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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 61-68

An investigation of the relationship between the components of the work ethic and organizational commitment among the staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences


Health Management and Economics Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication16-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Azadeh Alavi
Health Management and Economics Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.180306

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Many of the actions by managers and staff are rooted in ethics. In the present era, noncompliance with certain ethical standards has raised great concerns in the public and nongovernmental sectors. One of the major concerns of executives is how to create appropriate platforms for ethics and strengthen the sense of responsibility and commitment to human factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Islamic work ethics and dimensions of organizational commitment including exchange commitment, continuity, and replication. Research Methodology: The study was correlational in terms of description that was performed on 180 staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Islamic work ethics standard questionnaire by Mooghali et al. (2013) and organizational commitment questionnaire by Balfour and Wechsler (1996) were the instruments of this study. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 19). Findings: The results showed that each of the components of Islamic work ethic and sub-structure of organizational commitment have had a positive relationship with each other, so that the most relationship was between faith and commitment replication (P = 0.741), and the lowest correlation between religious responsible behavior with exchange commitment (P = 0.244), respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The effect of the work ethic in Iran is very important with an emphasis on ethics and culture of an organization and could be interacting components, such as organizational commitment. According to the results of this study, the governance of Islamic work ethics and commitment was favorable among employees and factors of the Islamic work ethics have a direct and significant impact on organizational commitment.

Keywords: Commitment, Islamic work ethics, work ethic


How to cite this article:
Safdarian A, Alavi A, Moaiedfar H. An investigation of the relationship between the components of the work ethic and organizational commitment among the staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2017;3:61-8

How to cite this URL:
Safdarian A, Alavi A, Moaiedfar H. An investigation of the relationship between the components of the work ethic and organizational commitment among the staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Aug 24];3:61-8. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2017/3/1/61/180306


  Introduction Top


Work is of creation and innovation categories. One of the most important issues in work is work ethics.[1] Ethics can be defined as a set of moral values that diagnose right work from wrong.[2] Unethical behavior can lead to organizational in the workplace and colleagues will protest. Ethics is a cultural norm that gives positive spiritual values to do good work in the community and believes that the work itself is an intrinsic value.[3] A method based on Islamic values provides a model for management that can provide benefits for all groups.[4]

Business ethics issues are different in different countries. Promotion of ethics and the meaning of work in the West may be related to the nature of European society and the values of this society; we should not overlook the fact that in each of the communities with different cultures, a certain moral value is considered. One of these values is the Islamic value of work.[5] Ali and Al Owaihan (2008) observed in their study that from the beginning of Islam, Muslims have work on their own unique views and almost coherent and have made systematic perspective on work ethic.

Islam, unlike many religions, is a belief that is comprehensive and covers all aspects of life, public and private aspects of humanity, politics, economic, and business activities. In fact, Islamic work ethic is useful for all individuals and organizations.[6] Business ethics should be sought generally in the inescapable moral character of all human actions and the responsibility of a human being, the person is responsible for his actions, both men and women, not only to the employer or workers but also in conjunction with work within the ability of workers or agent.[7]

Ali in his study pointed out that the application of Islamic work ethics entered Muslims to a golden ages 8-14.[8] Islamic work ethics and morality focuses on cooperation (consult with them and their work are like consultation between them) and consult a way to overcome obstacles and to avoid errors sees.[9] Islamic work ethics regard ethics as a source of joy and perfection and hard work to be virtue.[8],[10] Furthermore, it is emphasized that fairness in the workplace is of welfare requirements, and no one should be deprived of their full rights.

Work ethic that is normally associated with the religious beliefs of employees is assumed to have a relationship between organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational and individual variables and improves them. Many authors also examined the relationship between organizational commitment and work ethic. Rokhman (2010) were among the first researchers to examine the relationship between organizational commitment and work ethic and have concluded that the protestant work ethic has more relationship with workers moral and ethical commitment with regard to counting commitment.[10],[11]

Similarly, other researchers have shown that a significant relationship between organizational commitment, work ethic so that employees who develop strong corporative values have shown slightly higher commitment to the values of staffs, and staffs who have instrumental commitment show relatively little commitment.[12]

Hasani et al. examined the effect of Islamic work ethics on organizational justice, job satisfaction and absenteeism of electricity staffs of Orumiyeh concluded that there is a positive relationship between work ethic of staff and organizational justice, Islamic work ethics and job satisfaction there is also a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational justice.[13]

Mooghali et al. (2013) examined the evaluation of Islamic work ethics in the health system at the University of Medical Sciences concluded that the governance of Islamic morality was appropriate among staffs and gender, age, field of work, and management experience influence the components of the work ethic Islamic.[14] Ansari et al. (2013) in a study of a work ethic and commitment among staffs of the University of Medical Sciences concluded that there is a direct and positive relationship between three dimensions of Islamic work and organizational commitment. Demographic variables influence organizational commitment and Islamic work ethics.[15]

Rokhman (2010) examined the effect of Islamic work ethics and job performance (job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave the job), in Indonesia and observed that Islamic work ethics has a positive impact on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, but does not have any impact on leaving the job.[16] Arslan in a comparative study of the performance of managers in Britain and Turkey with Islamic work observed that Turkish managers gain all the features of ethics higher than English and concluded that religious motivations and values affect the business acquisition; and rejects criticism over-defensive negative effects of protestant Islamic work ethics about economic behavior.[17]

Rokhman (2010) examines the role of organizational commitment as a mediator between Islamic work ethics and attitude change and concluded that the work ethic positively and directly affect various aspects of organizational commitment and attitude change.[18] Elizur and Koslowsky examined the relationship between the values of work, gender, and commitment of the students who worked outside the university, and showed that business values, especially cognitive values have a positive relationship with the values of commitment, and interaction with gender as a predictor of commitment.[11] Over the decades, organizational commitment, like other organizational behavior concepts is defined in different ways and has been favored by many researchers, especially social psychologists.[12],[19] Organizational commitment is a stable and psychological requirement that binds a person to the activities of the organization.[20] The reason that organizational commitment was highly regarded by researchers is that commitment includes structures that affect the behavior of employee and the many organizational variables such as relocation of staffs, job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, in their absence, as well as conflict and job stress and identifies employees stay or leave[21] which indicates the importance of the study of this structure and factors including organizational commitment that affect work ethics.

Balfour and Wechsler in the classification of organizational commitment under the three indices, exchange commitment, dedication and commitment to integrity have introduced replication (which generates their total commitment). Replication commitment is commitment emerged on the basis of membership in the organization. In this type of commitment, staffs at all levels tend to be involved in the decisions about the business and their role. The continuous commitment of organization is considered as a continuous band in the form of a family.

In this type of commitment, sense of commitment is raised based on ties, rational and emotional reasons. Exchange commitment is created in response to the interest, support and encouragement to staff and is a type of an emotional bond attachment to the organization. This kind of commitment is a calculation process through which an individual calculate your benefits such as salary, social promotion, and links the access to social spherical networks to the organization.[22]

Given the commitment is of the factors influencing and defining the treatment of workers, and also according to Islamic religious context, Islamic work ethic rooted in the Quran and the guidance of the Holy Prophet and the Imams are of the most important variable determining organizational commitment, it is relevant to conduct the study between staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences so that the principles of Islamic work ethics promotes organizational commitment. Hence, this study tries to examine Islamic ethics and the role and its relationship with organizational commitment and its dimensions among the staff of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.


  Research Methodology Top


The aim of this study is descriptive and in terms of data collection it is correlational-descriptive, which is implemented as a field study. The study population consisted of all staffs working in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013, over 792 individuals, using Cochran formula sample size, with 95% confidence level and error-level 0.05, 180 staffs were considered by simple randomly sampling. The present questionnaire to collect information consists of three parts. The first part included questions on demographics including gender, age, education, work experience, etc. The second part of the questionnaire is to assess the work ethic using a standard questionnaire of 20 questions by Mooghali et al. (2013) are considered that measures the four dimensions of faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, religious responsible behavior.[14] Face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha, which was achieved 0.87 d to assess the reliability. The third part of the questionnaire is to measure organizational commitment made by nine questions by Balfour and Wechsler the three exchangeable, assimilation and integration measures, all three questions measures one of the dimensions of commitment.[22] Face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and was used to assess the reliability of that with an amount was 0.91.

Data analysis was performed through SPSS software from (Version 19) (IBM company, U.S.A) and two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. At descriptive statistics level, the statistical characteristics such as frequency, percentage, mean, variance, standard deviation and inferential Kruskal-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman correlation coefficient, and linear regression was used and the significance level was taken <0.05.


  Findings Top


In this study, sample of 180 university employees, 48 (60%) of employees were male and 32 (40%) were female, the greatest number of employees were in the age group 40-31 years with the prevalence of 74 (41.1%) also the majority of workers had a bachelor's degree with a frequency of 127 (70.6%) and the lowest frequency were of postgraduate education with a frequency of 15 (8.4%) and the largest number of staffs have the work experience between 1 and 10 years; more than half of employees in the sample had no management experience and then the highest frequency was between 5 and 1 years of managerial experience [Table 1].
Table 1: Descriptive statistics regarding the staffs' demography


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The Governance of Islamic work ethic elements (faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, religiously responsible behavior) and organizational commitment (identification, exchange, and linkage) between the staff of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was favorable, using the binomial normal (P < 0.05), in other words the ratio between supporters and opponents of the components of work ethic and commitment have significantly different and statistically these differences have been identified significant. Furthermore, faith and commitment indicators have the highest average and the index of perseverance and hard work and commitment to the transaction has the lowest; overall mean of the governance of Islamic ethics is more than commitment and due to the fact that human resources committed to an organization can better manifest high aims of the organization and lack of commitment or a low level brings negative consequences for the individual and organization it is so stressed and factors affecting employee commitment can be very important [Table 2] and [Figure 1].
Figure 1: The mean of Islamic ethics and organizational commitment components among staffs

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Table 2: Binominal test to study governing the Islamic ethics components and organizational commitment among staffs


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In this regard, using the Spearman correlation coefficient the relationship between these two variables showed that each of the components of Islamic work ethic and commitment have a positive relationship with each other, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the highest relationship is between faith and replication commitment (P = 0.741), and the lowest correlation between religiously responsible behavior with exchange commitment (P = 0.244) [Table 3].
Table 3: Extent of relationship between Islamic ethics and organizational commitment


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The results of multiple regression factors influence the work ethic (faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, religiously responsible behavior) on dependent variable organizational commitment (identification, exchange, and linkage) showed that variable of sound human relation predictor in the workplace has a negligible impact on replication commitment (0.046).

In addition, religiously responsible behavior have little impact on exchange commitment (0.024) and the variables of faith, perseverance and hard work and responsible behavior has little effect on the obligation of religious continuity in the organization (respectively 0.022, 0.003, 0.019) and so the impact of this variable has been rejected (P > 0.05), but the rest of the predictor variables had a significant effect on each of the subscales of commitment and values of each (β) is provided [Table 4]. In other words, generally components of Islamic ethics affect organizational commitment. This has a direct and linear effect on the factors which is weaker in some components and stronger in others. For example, the greatest impact of responsible religious behavior and faith is on commitment perseverance and the greatest impact of hard work is on exchange commitment and sound the greatest impact of human relations in the workplace is on the association's commitment. The equation for predicting each of the dimensions of organizational commitment can be offered in three following lines:
Table 4: Impact factor of Islamic ethics component on organizational commitment


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  • Replication commitment = 1.75 + (responsible religious behavior) 0.065 + (good relations) 0.046 + (perseverance) 0.085 + (faith) 0.437
  • Exchange commitment = 1.83 + (responsible religious behavior) 0.024 + (good relations) 0.132 + (perseverance) 0.187 + (faith) 0.121
  • Commitment to integrity = 2.30 + (responsible religious behavior) 0.019 + (good relations) 0.324 + (perseverance) 0.003 + (faith) 0.022.


Finally, to determine the demographic factors affecting each of the components of Islamic ethics and organizational commitment Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used and the results showed that none of the demographic factors has any effect on the components of Islamic ethics and staff organizational commitment (P > 0.05); with the exception of gender, which affect only the continuous commitment subscales (P < 0.05). In other words, the average rate of the subscales of women were better compared to men in terms of organizational coherence and the age factor affected component of Islamic ethics, in other words, persistence of employees, has increased with age [Table 5].
Table 5: Demographic factors influencing the research variables


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  Discussion and Conclusion Top


Regarding the fact that the work ethic plays a very important and effective role in human resource productivity and one of the areas of work ethics is Islamic ethics, which has elements (faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, responsible religious behavior).

Recently, ethics and moral values are very important in the analysis of the behavior of organizations. Ethical behavior forms the outward symbol of the organizations that have emerged from the sum of the various moral values in organizations. Furthermore, one of the basic criteria considered by the scientists and experts in organizational behavior management includes subscales of organizational commitment (commitment identification, exchangeable and linkage) two variables of Islamic work ethics and organizational commitment can have a close relationship with each other and affect one another.

Because of the abovementioned importance of subjects this study examined the effect of Islamic work ethics on organizational commitment of 180 staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences 70 (61.1%) were male and 110 (38.9%) were females and age 40-31 years had the highest frequency.

The majority of staff have a bachelor's degree with a frequency of 127 (70.6%) and the lowest frequency was of postgraduate education with a frequency of 15 (8.4%), respectively. The majority of organizational posts were expert posts and ultimately the highest frequency was devoted to employment with a frequency of 63 patients (35%) and the lowest frequency was devoted to contractual employment by 11 patients (6.1%).

The governance of Islamic work ethic elements (faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, responsible religious behavior) and organizational commitment (identification, exchange and linkage) between the staff of Isfahan University Medical Sciences, was favorable using the binomial test (P < 0.05), in other words the ratio between supporters and opponents of the components work ethic and commitment have significantly different and statistically significant differences have been identified.

Also, faith and commitment dimension have the highest average and the index of perseverance and hard work and exchange commitment has the lowest average; the overall mean of the governance of Islamic ethics is more than organizational commitment.

Consistent with the present results, Mooghali et al. (2013) and Moeedfar (2006) also concluded that the degree of Islamic work ethic elements (faith, perseverance and hard work, healthy human relationships at work, responsible religious behavior) is desirable among employees of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.[14],[23] The dimensions of Islamic work ethic and organizational commitment subscales had a positive relationship with each other, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the highest relationship was between faith and replication commitment (P = 0.741), and the lowest correlation was between religious responsible behavior with exchange commitment (P = 0.244), respectively. Moreover, regression analysis showed that sound human relation variable in the workplace predicted little effect on the obligation of identification (0.046), also the responsible religious behavior variable have a little significant effect on exchange commitment (0.024) also faith, perseverance and hard work and responsible behavior has little effect on the obligation of religious continuity in the organization (in order of 0.022, 0.003, 0.019) and so the impact of these variables has been rejected (P > 0.05), but the rest of the predictor variables had a significant effect on each of the dimensions of organizational commitment.

According to the survey results, results by Ansari et al. (2013) also showed a positive relationship between Islamic work ethics and commitment and its dimensions.[15] The results of the studies by Elizur and Koslowsky showed a direct link between the work ethic (protestant) work values and organizational commitment.[11] In addition, Rokhman (2010) in his study showed that there is a direct relationship between work ethic and commitment, so that people who strongly support work ethics are satisfied from their work a lot more than others and their commitment to the organization[18] also results by Asadi and Shirzad also showed a positive relationship between Islamic work ethics and components of organizational commitment. Normative (simulated) commitment was most strongly related to Islamic morality variable.[24] Rokhman research results (2010) also showed a positive effect of Islamic work ethics on job satisfaction and organizational commitment.[16]

Evaluation of demographic factors affecting each of the components of Islamic ethics and organizational commitment showed that none of the components of demographic factors influence Islamic work ethic and commitment of employees (P > 0.05) except gender in other words, regarding the mean of these subscales, women are better than men in terms of continuity of commitment. The age factor affected component of Islamic ethics, in other words the age of employees increased diligence.

According to the survey results, results by Ansari et al. (2013) also showed that demographic factors (education and job history) have a little impact on the relationship between Islamic work ethic and total commitment and its dimensions.[15] The results by Mooghali et al. (2013) showed that with increasing age, responsible religious behavior has been increasing as one of the components of Islamic morality.[14] Unlike the results of this study, Chelliah conducted in Malaysia; found that work experience influences the ethical behavior of employees.[25]

The results by Mooghali et al. (2013) found that healthy human relationships at work in females are more than males. In the index of healthy human relations in the workplace gender and job category were effective, and the index of responsible behavior religious is affected by gender, age, and field of work and management experience, respectively.[14]

Hence, overall, according to the results this study could be the start field studies in the field of Islamic work ethics and designing assessment tools for the administrative system of the country and forces managers think deeper and more useful toward the development of concepts of work ethics such as hard work; jihad, work aim at prosperity, trying to make virtue that comes with the proposals submitted to the managers, especially managers of human resources can be the theoretical contribution of this research.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
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