• Users Online: 201
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77-82

The effectiveness of the component of resilience training on negative emotions of eighth-grade female students in Isfahan


1 Department of Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication16-Jan-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Maryam Esmaili
Department of Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/.168508

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Aim: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the component of resilience training to negative emotions of eighth-grade female students in the city. Methods: This study was semi-experimental with pretest, posttest, and follow-up. The population of this study were all eighth-grade students in Isfahan who were enrolled during 2014-2015. For this purpose, 30 samples were selected using cluster sampling, and they were divided into two groups, the experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The sample group received the highest score in responding to the questionnaire Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 42 (DASS42) (1995). The experimental group received eight sessions of 2 h and 1 day a week component of resilience training. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results: This study showed that the component of resilience training to negative emotions of eighth-grade girls in the experimental group had a significant positive impact (05/0 > P). Conclusions: These findings suggest that resilience may be an important strategy in greater emphasis on factors that increase the psychological well-being. Also, the training program as a new strategy for reducing negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress) can provide a large part of psychological safety of individuals, families, and communities.

Keywords: Resilience, negative emotions, female students


How to cite this article:
Ramshe MY, Esmaili M. The effectiveness of the component of resilience training on negative emotions of eighth-grade female students in Isfahan . Int J Educ Psychol Res 2017;3:77-82

How to cite this URL:
Ramshe MY, Esmaili M. The effectiveness of the component of resilience training on negative emotions of eighth-grade female students in Isfahan . Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2019 Dec 6];3:77-82. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2017/3/1/77/168508


  Introduction Top


One of the serious health risks in recent years due to rapid social change taking into consideration the health organizations, law enforcement, and social policy as one of the most important problems in society is the prevalence of behavioral disorders among different groups. However, none of the sectors of society is not safe due to the consequences health-threatening behavior, but some social groups such as teenagers are at greater risk. Many teenagers coped with difficulties and crises of adolescence show behaviors that threaten the health of their present and future. [1]

Behavioral disorders not only are severe and prolonged expression of negative emotions, but they also are efforts to control and suppression. [2] Adolescence is a period in which physical and psychosocial changes are associated with intense emotions and even in its most common form is the emotional crisis that is not far away a mental disorder. During this period, conflicts can lead to experience of negative emotions such as depression, anxiety, stress, and disorder in adolescents. [3]

Teenager depression is a mood disorder subgroup and mood disorders are clinical status that are associated with mood disorders, lack of control over the mood, and subjective experience of intense pain. [4] General symptoms of depression include depressed mood, lack of pleasure or interest, turmoil in sleep, disorder in appetite, lack of energy, psychomotor delay or arousal, feelings of guilt, worthlessness, and thinking problems. [5] Depression is a serious problem among adolescents. Depression in teens includes a group of heterogeneous symptoms which are not observed during normal growth and development and is generally associated with different symptoms and certain personality and behavioral disorders such as self-harm and isolationism. In fact, the symptoms of depression in adolescence are highly variable. Depression in teens emerges in different forms such as anxious and depressed reactions, depression based on sense of failure, sense of humiliation, depression based on sense of abandonment, or hide depression. In many cases, teens who have depressed to control depression choose certain methods, such as sense of discomfort, extreme relationships with others, or avoiding people. Their sense of discomfort shows that they tend too much to change the status quo but do not attempt to change. Their tolerance is very low against daily repetitive events. Help-seeking behaviors of depressed teen may be in the form of problematic behaviors such as creating a brawl, avoiding, huff, aversion school, protest, Heist, anti-social behavior, and criminal activity. [6] Often depression does not found in pure form often and in 50% of cases, patients with depression have an anxiety disorder. [7]

Anxiety is also the most common emotion which can inform the problem or problems among adolescents. There is a "conflict" between internal forces (social-individual motivation and needs and desires) with external forces (norms of family, community, and groups) in the teenagers. Anxiety is a very unpleasant feeling and vague from worry which is associated with symptoms of the autonomic system such as chest tightness, heart palpitations, sweating, headache, stomach brief discomfort, and restlessness which will be determined with inability to sit or stand. [4] Anxiety deprives a person of much of his facilities, only on the basis of freedom-limiting strategies, individual flexibility is reduced, and creates a wide range of anxiety disorders which have spread from cognitive and physical disorders until unjustified fears and startle. [8] Anxiety causes the inner balance compromised, and the teenager is affected by the turmoil. All motivations and thoughts of the teenager focused on events which are stressful for him. There is no doubt that in this case the teenager cannot benefit from available education well, avoid from verbal communication with his teachers, or cannot show his abilities well. So, he cannot achieve his desired reward according to his activities and knowledge. [9]

Life can always be associated with stress and anxiety. Everyone faces with different combinations of needs and conflicts in life. Stress is the physical, mental, and emotional reaction which is experienced as a result of the changes and needs of life. Changes can be large or small. People's response to the change in life is different. Positive stress can be a motivator, whereas negative stress can be created when these changes and demands broke a person. Stress or tension or psychological pressure means pressure or force in psychology. Any stimulus that creates stress in humans is called stress or stress factor. Tension in the body and the body's response is called stress. In other words, anything causes tension of mind and body and loss of balance is stressful. While entering the stress, the body shows reaction to restore the lost balance. [10]

Given these problems, it is necessery to use the solutions in order to cope with these problems. One of the most comprehensive programs in the prevention, the program is based on resiliency which is considered to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors. These programs have proved their ability in the prevention of behavioral problems and social harms. Resiliency is the process of dealing with disruptive events, stressful, and life challenging. In fact, resiliency is the process of self-adjusting growth or self-reform that means the capacity of a quick return to the initial state, the ability to release (reset) from unpleasant or difficult conditions. Resiliency is the protector of people at risk which protect them from the negative effects of exposure to risk factors. [11]

It is arguably the resiliency term that has entered in Iran psychology scholarly literature recently and yet this approach is very young in our country. But, in developed countries, the use of the programs based on resiliency have a long history in different fields such as academic achievement, prevention of drug abuse, prevention of crime, and abuse of children. The obtained results of implementation of this program has been very successful in different situations such as school, family, and social contexts. Resiliency increasing programs help teenagers to face the challenges and successfully pass. [12]

In addition, it is important to understand adolescent behavior disorders. Examining ways to deal with behavioral problems in adolescents and the use of efficient methods shows the necessity of research. Today, there is much evidence about the importance of resiliency and health in life and development of young people. So, some psychologists have emphasized resiliency strategies and preventative measures to protect the mental health of children and teenagers. [13]

According to the research done in the field of family life education, this study seeks to answer the question whether the component of resiliency educational sessions is effective to negative emotions?


  Methods Top


With respect to objectives and the nature of research, this study is an experimental design with a pretest and posttest and 1-month follow-up with the control group. The research society consisted of all eighth-grade female students in the 2014-2015 academic year who are studying in the city of Isfahan. In order to select the study sample, 30 students were selected using multistage cluster sampling; thus, in the first phase, an area of the multiple areas of education of Isfahan was selected randomly, in the second phase a school of considered district was selected, and in the third phase 30 eighth-grade students who received high scores from DASS42 questionnaire were selected and 15 of them were placed in the control group and 15 others in the experimental group. Next, the components of resiliency training program were offered to the experimental group in eight sessions. This occurred while the control group did not receive any training. These meetings are held once a week for 2 h. It should be noted that the participants were exposed to pretest and posttest before and after training and then they once again were followed up after the completion of training and finally collected data were analyzed through statistical methods appropriate to the experimental studies.

Inventory (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) DASS42: The questionnaire was designed in 1995 by Lovibond. He determined its psychometric properties on samples of students and nonclinical samples. [14] The questionnaire that evaluated three psychiatric conditions include depression, anxiety, and stress and contain options related to signs and symptoms of depression with 14 questions, anxiety with 14 questions, and stress with 14 questions which is completed by the person.

DASS42 inventory psychometric properties were reviewed and approved by Afzali et al. on a sample of 400 high-school students from the city of Kermanshah in the academic year 2003-2004. The study findings have reported depression subscale correlation of the test with Beck Depression Inventory 0/489, with Zung Anxiety Inventory 0/138, and with students Stress Inventory 0/758. Calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient to measure depression, anxiety, and stress was reported to be 0/94, 0/85, and 0/87, respectively. [15] DASS42 questionnaire was also validated in 2006 by Sepehri and Samani, and its alpha coefficient was reported, respectively, for depression as 0/89, anxiety 0/84, and stress 0/68. [16] So, this questionnaire has good validity and reliability.


  Results Top


Variables descriptive index is provided based on the evaluation stage and group membership in [Table 1].
Table 1: Variables scores descriptive index on the evaluation stage and group membership


Click here to view


According to [Table 1], the experimental group mean in the depression in the pretest, posttest, and follow-up is 21/47, 15/74, and 16/53, respectively. Also, the scores of the control group at the three stages of the research in this variable are 20/87, 20/49, and 20/8, respectively. In the anxiety, the pretest scores mean in the experimental group is 16/33, posttest 10/96, and follow-up 12/2. In the control group, pretest, posttest, and follow-up are obtained as 17/13, 17/06, and 17/47, respectively. The mean of the experimental group in the amount of stress in the pretest, posttest, and follow-up is 26/27, 17/67, 18/53, respectively. Also, the scores of the control group at the three stages of research in this variable are 25/33, 25/07, and 8/25, respectively. In the interpersonal relationships, pretest scores mean in the experimental group is 51/4, posttest 61/47, and follow-up 61/13. In the control group, the pretest, posttest, and follow-up are obtained as 53/07, 53/87, and 53/53, respectively.

According to [Table 2], Levine's assumption of equality of variances in the groups in the pretest scores in all variables, namely depression, anxiety, and stress in society, has not rejected and has remained the same (all significantly levels >0/05).
Table 2: The equality test of research variables score variances


Click here to view


In [Table 3], the results of the multivariate analysis of the variables have presented.
Table 3: The results of the multivariate analysis, the variables in two groups


Click here to view


According to [Table 3], the difference between the average scores of all variables was not significant in the two groups. The variables significant of depression, anxiety, and stress are 0/766, 0/695, and 0/61, respectively, which are more than 0/05.

Based on the obtained findings in [Table 4], there is a significant difference in the scores mean of three variables: Depression, anxiety, and stress in the posttest and follow-up in control and experimental groups (P = 0/003). The results have shown that nearly 93% of individual differences of three variables are related to differences between the two groups. So, the main hypothesis has been confirmed. Statistical power is also equal to 0/965 which indicates good precision of the test and also represents the sample size is sufficient for the survey hypothesis.
Table 4: The results of comparing the two groups in total variables


Click here to view



  Discussion Top


With the review of studies on depression in adolescents, we realize that despite significant advances have been done in drug therapy and psychological of depression in the past decade, the prevalence of depression among adolescents and young adults continues to increase. In this regard, researchers believe epidemiological studies to identify behavioral and mental health problems in adolescents is more importent than investigates the extent of psychological problems of adults.

Regardless of the reasons for the importance of these findings, a review of the research literature suggests that the findings of this research agree with the results of other studies being undertaken.

The results of this study showed that components of resiliency training have changed depression scores in the experimental group in the posttest and follow-up significantly.

The effectiveness of this program about the depression reduction of eighth-grade students is consistent with the results of research conducted by Samani et al., Besharat, Reev, Arce et al., Tugade and Fredrickson and Carl and Chassin and they concluded that there is a significant negative correlation between resiliency and emotional problems and there is a positive correlation between resiliency and positive emotions. [16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] Also, the results of this study is consistent with the results of the research conducted by Peng et al., Steensma et al., Steinhardt and Dolbeir and their research concluded that the resiliency reduces negative emotions such as depression. [22],[23],[24] In the same measure, Brunwasser et al. have reported in a reviewed research from various studies that an year of follow-up after the resiliency intervention had a positive effect on depression in adolescents. [25]

In explaining this hypothesis, we can say that considering the present educational programs' stresses on positive thinking and optimism and because optimism is one of the characteristics of abiding people and is linked sense of psychological well-being is linked, the depression reduction is likely due to increasing optimism among experimental groups' student. Optimism can increase people's tolerance against the hardships and to look at the positive aspects of the issue.

The effectiveness of this program about the anxiety-reduction of eighth-grade students is consistent with the research conducted by Samani et al., Besharat, Arce et al., Tugade and Fredrickson, Carl and Chassin and Reev and they also concluded that there is a significant negative correlation between resiliency and emotional problems and there is a positive correlation between resiliency and positive emotions. [16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] Also, the results of this study is consistent with the results of research conducted by Peng et al., Sharma and their research concluded that the resiliency reduces negative emotions such as anxiety. [22],[26]

In explaining this hypothesis, we can say that in this training program with learning the skills of self-awareness, individual acquires more knowledge about themselves, their abilities and positive attributes and with self-efficacy skills training is affected method interpretation of adverse conditions and reactions to those conditions and thus reduces anxiety. With regard to Chuang comment that who believes abiding individuals have less negative characteristics in the face of traumatic events described and have less depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, and problems thinking, in this training program self-efficacy skill improves the perspective of people in relation to their ability to cope with stressful circumstances and situation. [26],[27] The idea that we have the resources to deal with adverse conditions in contrast to the belief that we are unable is prophesier of better compatibility and vice versa. When people think they cannot control their annoying events and they cannot obtain what they want, they are anxious and depressed.

The effectiveness of this program about the stress reduction of eighth-grade students is consistent with the research conducted by Samani et al., Arce et al., Tugade and Fredrickson, Carle and Chassin, and they concluded that there is a significant negative correlation between resiliency and emotional problems and there is a positive correlation between resiliency and positive emotions. [16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] Also, the results of this study is consistent with the results of research by Kaveh, Hosseini and Salimi (2013), Yi et al., and White and they have done their research on patients and families who have sick. [28],[29],[30],[31] And also the results of this study is consistent with the results of research by Peng et al., Sharma et al., and Rose et al., all of which concluded that resiliency has significant effect in reducing stress. [22],[26],[32] Also, Steinhardt and Dolbier and Skehil, similar to results of this study, were found that the resiliency training program increases effective coping strategies and protective factors such as positive emotions, self-esteem, and self-leadership, and decreases negative emotions, stress, and depression. [24],[33]

In explaining this hypothesis, we can say that one reason for the effectiveness of resiliency training to reduce stress may be coping strategies and better defense mechanisms in people because resiliency is linked with useful coping strategies and positive positioning describing stress and crisis and it shows the ability of the individual to adapt to personal stress and risk factors in the family environment and the community.

The results of this study showed that education is one of the most important ways to reduce negative emotions in adolescent. Of course, though this training be more comprehensive and is presented in younger age groups, it would be more effective. It is better to run resilience-based programs in ages ago Prep and primary school to create the lasting influences and from the very beginning of childhood, these methods to be used as a foundation for children's education.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Merikangas KR, He JP, Burstein M, Swanson SA, Avenevoli S, Cui L, et al. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication - Adolescent supplement (NCS-A). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49:980-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Zahn-Waxler C, Klimes-Dougan B, Slattery MJ. Internalizing problems of childhood and adolescence: Prospects, pitfalls, and progress in understanding the development of anxiety and depression. Dev Psychopathol 2000;12:443-66.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hooper CJ, Luciana M, Conklin HM, Yarger RS. Adolescents′ performance on the Iowa gambling task: Implications for the development of decision making and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Dev Psychol 2004;40:1148-58.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sadok BJ, Sadok VA. Summary of Psychiatry. Vol. 2. Translation Rezaee F. Tehran: Arjmand; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Azad F. Mental Pathology. Vol. 1. Tehran: Besat; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Atashpour H, Zamani M, Ara J. Theory of Depression and Treatment. Isfahan: Khorasgan Islamic Azad University Publications; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fennell M, Bent-Levy J, Wastbrook D. Cognitive Therapy. New York: Oxford Press; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Dadsetan P. Morbidly Developmental Psychology (from childhood to adulthood). Vol. 1. Tehran: Samt; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Rajai M. Effect of the Group Academic Advisory on Enhancing Skills and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Single Child Students. Consultation Master Thesis. University of Isfahan; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Zamani MM. Comparison of Multiple Relationships between the Stresses of Adolescence, Resilience, Attachment Style and Family Relationships with Adolescent Depression Among Single Students. Psychology Master Thesis. University of Science and Research; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Sanjabi BS. Adolescent resilience. J Guid Educ 2010;1:16-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Stephens TM. Increasing Resilience in Adolescent Nursing Students. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. The University of Tennessee. Knoxville; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Prince-Embury S. Translating resiliency theory for assessment and application in schools. Can J Sch Psychol 2008;23:4-10.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther 1995;33:335-43.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Afzali A, Delavar A, Borjali A, Mirzamani M. Psychometric test features DASS-42 based on a sample of high school students in Kermanshah. Behav Sci Res 2007;5:81-92.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Samani S, Jowkar B, Sahragard N. Resilience, mental health and life satisfaction. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol 2007;3:290-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Besharat MA. Resiliency, vulnerability and mental health. J Psychol Sci 2007;6:73-83.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Reev J. Understanding Motivation and Emotion. Hoboken: Wiley; 2005. p. 556.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Arce E, Simmons AW, Stein MB, Winkielman P, Hitchcock C, Paulus MP. Association between individual differences in self-reported emotional resilience and the affective perception of neutral faces. J Affect Disord 2008;2:120-31.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Tugade MM, Fredrickson BL. Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. J Pers Soc Psychol 2004;86:320-33.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Carle AC, Chassin L. Resilience in a community sample of children of alcoholics: Its prevalence and relation to internalising symptomatology and positive affect. J Appl Dev Psychol 2004;25:577-96.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Peng L, Li M, Zuo X, Miao Y, Chen L, Yu Y, et al. Application of the Pennsylvania resilience training program on medical students. Pers Individ Dif 2014;61-62:47-51.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Steensma H, Heijer MD, Stallen V. Effects of resilience training on the reduction of stress and depression among Dutch workers. Q Community Health Educ 2007;27:145-59.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Steinhardt M, Dolbier C. Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and protective factors and decrease symptomatology. J Am Coll Health 2008;56:445-53.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Brunwasser SM, Gillham JE, Kim ES. A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program′s effect on depressive symptoms. J Consult Clin Psychol 2009;77:1042-54.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Sharma V, Sood A, Loprinzi C, Prasad K. Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program to decrease stress and enhance resilience among breast cancer survivors: A randomized trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:211.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Chuang S, Lamb ME, Whang CP. Personality development from childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal study of ego-control and ego-resiliency in Sweden. Int J Behav Dev 2006;30:343-88.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Kaveh M. Development of a Resilience Fostering Program Against Stress and its Impact on Quality of Life Components in Parents of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability. Psychology Doctoral Dissertation. Psychology College Alame Tabatabaee University; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Hosseini T, Salimi H. The effectiveness training resiliency on mother′s stress of children with cancer. Health psychology. Scientificy and search quarterly. 2013;4:97-109.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Yi JP, Vitaliano PP, Smith RE, Yi JC, Weinger K. The role of resilience on psychological adjustment and physical health in patients with diabetes. Br J Health Psychol 2008;13(Pt 2):311-25.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
White N, Bichter J, Koeckeritz J, Lee YA, Munch KL. A cross-cultural comparison of family resiliency in hemodialysis patients. J Transcult Nurs 2002;13:218-27.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Rose RD, Buckey JC Jr, Zbozinek TD, Motivala SJ, Glenn DE, Cartreine JA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a self-guided, multimedia, stress management and resilience training program. Behav Res Ther 2013;51:106-12.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Skehill CM. Resilience, Coping with an Extended Stay Outdoor Education Program, and Adolescent Mental Health. Canberra: University of Canberra: Dissertation for the Degree of Honors; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 33
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2053    
    Printed74    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded119    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]