• Users Online: 606
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 133-137

Compare the quality of life in adults with preferences of morning-evening in Isfahan

1 Department of Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, University of Amin, Fooladshar, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication26-Jul-2017

Correspondence Address:
Zohre Ranjbar Kohan
Department of Psychology, University of Amin, Fooladshar, Isfahan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.211648

Rights and Permissions

Aim: People can be divided into three types: Morningness, eveningness, and intermediate. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life in people with preferences morning-evening in adults living in Isfahan. Methods: A causal-comparative design was used for this study. The population of this study was men and women who are living in the Isfahan in 2014. 100 subjects were taken as the sample size (n = 50 morning brigade, 50 evening brigade) and were tested by Weir and Sherborne quality of life scale (1992). Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference in both scales of quality of life (mental health, physical health) between those types of morning and evening. Conclusion: It seems logical and analytical performance-oriented properties, and their morning-oriented thinking can be used as one of the causes of the differences in quality of life between the two groups considered.

Keywords: Circadian rhythm, morning-evening, quality of life

How to cite this article:
Pahlevan A, Kohan ZR. Compare the quality of life in adults with preferences of morning-evening in Isfahan. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2017;3:133-7

How to cite this URL:
Pahlevan A, Kohan ZR. Compare the quality of life in adults with preferences of morning-evening in Isfahan. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Jan 25];3:133-7. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2017/3/2/133/211648

  Introduction Top

In 1729, astronomer for several days in a dark room kept plants which open their leaves during the day and closed at night. He found that even in the absence of sunlight, the cycle is repeated. As a result, he found that the activity of these plants is not due to external factors.[1] Since then, the study of biological rhythms began and results of the research showed that all members of the body are affected by biological rhythms.[2],[3] Circadian rhythms (circadian cycle) for the 1st time were found in about the 4th century BC. Andrvstyn then explained tamarind tree leaves daily movements. The new observations about Circadian rhythms were in 1700 by the French scientist named Jacques Jacques. He wrote “24-h movement patterns of mimosa plant continue even when plants are not affected by external stimuli.”[4] Franz Halbrg coined the word circadian. The meaning of Latin word “circa” is around and about, and the word “dian” means something that is related to the day. Circadian means “approximately 1 day.” Circadian rhythms seen in the range of organisms from humans, mice, fish, fruit flies, and plants to even single cells such as cyanobacteria.[4] Boarding environmental cycle has one of the most extensive effects on human behavior. Because it creates the 24-h sleep-wake rhythm, which is called boarding rhythm. Many physiological processes and other areas of personal performance such as endocrine activity, food anticipatory rhythms, and rhythm of human body temperature faced with the changes of the dark-light cycle. The circadian rhythm gives us the ability to we find the most effective way to consistent with surrounding environment in addition to the forecast of environmental changes by physiological and behavioral processes to act at a time of day when is useful biologically.[5]

The researchers believe that based on the cycle of rest-operating, people can be divided into three types: Morningness, eveningness, and intermediate. Type the morning, people who are more active in the first part of the day and tend to go to bed early the night. The type of night, people involved who woke up late and more active in the second half of the day and those who show behavioral patterns of the day, between the two ends of the continuum and type of day into account. Types of morningness-eveningness can be considered as a continuum that majority of people are between the end of this continuum.[6] Morningness type is also named Lark brigade that wake up early is refreshing morning and are considered as people active and conscious, reliable, and emotional stability. Type evening or owl difficult to wake up and yet can feel tired. He is inactive in the morning and stays awake until late at night. Evening type described as creative and emotionally unstable and difficulties in social and family relationships, while the morning types, vitality and good mood during the day have been reported. Evening types have behavioral problems, low academic performance, high levels of stress in family life, and social adaptation.[7] There are special preferences and differences between the two types of morning and evening. The differences in cognitive abilities, work programs, lifestyle, psychological variables, and gender differences between these two types are studied.[8] Research findings on the relationship between the boarding and sex show that girls and women are more likely morning type than boys and men so that the percentage of women than men in morning type.[9] One of the fundamental issues in biological approach is circadian rhythm and disruption of the cycle that is effective in the formation and the development of mood disorders and irregularities in the biological clock can be depressed the person.[10] Pineal gland as a body, matching the precise regulation of circadian rhythm and regulates the brain homeostasis by 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine which is the hormone melatonin and so abnormal function of the gland can lead to mental disorders.[11]

In recent years, there is considerable attention in the measurement of health and the psychological and physical impact of the disease on their daily activities and behaviors that these measurements focused on to a vision and holistic approach in health and health care and in this regard a new approach to medical and social research has been introduced as quality of life.

The term quality of life for the 1st time was used in 1920 by Pigou in The Economics of Welfare. Over time, the researchers found that quality of life can be one of the consequences, that is, important in the assessment, and also it is to be pointed in the World Health Organization's definition of health.[12]

According to the definition of health by the World Health Organization in 1948 based on its broad dimensions of well-being in the form of complete physical, mental, and social and not merely the absence of disease, so it is necessary to measure and evaluate health care interventions, and it is important to focus in addition to other measures of the frequency and severity of human values such as quality of life.[12]

Different definitions have been proposed about the meaning of quality of life. Some know it as the ability to handle life.[13] Donald refers quality of life as a descriptive term that promote health and emotional, physical, and social needs of individuals and their ability to perform everyday tasks.[14] Weaver offers the definition in 2001, and it is accepted by many experts, quality of life is a person's perception of his health status and satisfaction of these conditions.[15] In addition, quality of life has been defined as a feeling of health, satisfaction, or dissatisfaction with life, joy, and happiness or unhappiness, and so it.[16]

Finally, the World Health Organization knows quality of life as an understanding of their position in life in the domains of culture, value system in which they live and also their relationship with the goals, aspirations, and their concerns.[17]

Quality of life is multidimensional and complex and includes objective and subjective factors and considered evaluation of the welfare and the important aspects of life. An important feature of quality of life is agreed by most social scientists and including multidimensional, dynamic, and subjective of it. In short, pay special attention is to the quality of life in many countries, and they know, promoting it as an integral part of the socioeconomic development.[17] Based on the evidence, we expect a positive relationship between life satisfaction and morning type and possibly rescheduling the social and biological results in lower welfare.[18] Randler [19] in his study reported a significant positive correlation between the morningness and life satisfaction, but there was no significant correlation between eveningness and life satisfaction.

According to theoretical discussions and considering the importance of different evening types and a key role of it in mental health and physical health of people and impress the quality of life, this study seeks to answer the question of whether there is different between types of boarding (morningness-eveningness) in the quality of life?

  Methods Top

In this research, the method was comparative. The study sample included men and women 20–60 years old in Isfahan, which 100 were selected by convenience sampling, then ask the subjects to participate in research, were conducted Morningness-eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) of Horne-Ostberg, and the short form questionnaire Weir and Sherborne quality of life (SF36) and they were compared. 27 incomplete forms were delivered, and 42 subjects were introduced as a moderate type. Thus, 69 subjects were excluded, and 346 people were tested until the desired number of samples was n = 100. Analysis of data was performed using statistical software SPSS 16 software IBM SPSS analytic server) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). and multivariate analysis of covariance.

To collect data and measure variables three tools were used as follows: (1) Demographic form, (2) scale of preferences morning-evening, and (3) quality of life scale.

Demographic form

To collect personal information and demographics of the participants in the study, the form was designed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, education level, and demographic information was revealed.

Preferences morningness-eveningness scale

MEQ is a 19-question questionnaire to determine the type of board of members has been developed by Horne and Ostberg.[20] The questionnaire has a number of different options and the specific investment and determines a person's circadian type by a question about sleeping and waking hours and preferences of physical hours for physical and mental work. Inventory options are not equal values and based on the preliminary analysis of its creators some questions options are different values of other questions. The range of scores is from 16 to 86, and a higher score indicates more of the morningness, and the lower sign is more of an eveningness. The original version of the MEQ classified people in five classes according to their score: 86–70 fully morningness, 69–59 relatively morningness, 58–42 moderate, 41–31 relatively eveningness, and 30–16 is quite an eveningness. Internal correlation between questions is obtained 02/0− to 61/0+ with an average of 2/0+. Chlysnky et al. reported Cronbach's alpha 0/78 and Anderson et al. repeated the test and reported the reliability 77/0. In Iran, the reliability of the test obtained 74/0 by Sheikh and Samaria and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated 72/0.[7]

Quality of life scale

Short form of health survey questionnaire (SF-36): This self-report questionnaire to assess the quality of life and health is used mainly was built by Weir and Sherborne (1992) and has 36 options, and it evaluated 8 domains including physical functioning, social functioning, role of physical, role of emotional, mental health, vitality, bodily pain, and general health. Moreover, SF-36 provides two general measures of functions. The overall score of physical components that it also evaluates the physical health and overall score of the mental component, which it will evaluate psychosocial health. The score of participants in each of these is variable between 0 and 100 and higher scores mean a better quality of life. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were accepted in Iranian population, and the internal consistency coefficient for 8 subscales 8 varies from 70/0 to 85/0, and test-retest coefficients with an interval of 1 week have been reported between 43/0 and 79/0. The questionnaire can be used in all the indicators, for the distinction between healthy persons and patients.[21]

  Results Top

[Table 1] reports descriptive indicators of variables (mean ± standard deviation).
Table 1: Descriptive indicators (mean and SD) quality of life in both groups

Click here to view

In this study, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used for analysis of results. In [Table 2], the normal default of quality of life is examined. The purpose of this assumption is to study the normal distribution of scores that is matched with the population. This assumption implies that the difference between the sample and the distribution of scores in the distribution of scores is zero.
Table 2: The results of Shapiro-Wilk about normality assumptions about quality of life scores

Click here to view

As can be seen in [Table 2], zero assumption for the normal distribution of scores in quality of life scores is confirmed. The assumption of the normal distribution of quality of life scores is approved in both groups of study. The base of assumption for equality of variances is that assumed that the variances of the two groups in society are equal, and there is no significant difference statistically. To test this hypothesis, the test Levine was used.[22]

In [Table 3] shows the results of the variance and covariance of assumptions in two groups related to the quality of life.
Table 3: The results of the assumptions Levin related to multivariate analysis of variance related to quality of life

Click here to view

As can be seen in [Table 3], assuming the equality of variance in physical health and mental health scores of the two groups has not been met and also the default of covariance equality has not been achieved. MANOVA parametric test cannot be used given the assumptions of normality of data, equal variance, and covariance are not met. However, parametric statistics can be used given the large sample size of 40 patients using standard measurement, random sampling, interval scale of measurement of the dependent variable, and equal of sample size.[22]

[Table 4] shows the results of MANOVA in the quality of life.
Table 4: Results of multivariate analysis of variance in quality of life between the two groups in the morningness and eveningness preferences

Click here to view

As can be seen in [Table 4], there are significant differences between morningness and eveningness preferences in the physical characteristics (P<0/05, F =5/87) and mental health (P<0/05, F=14/54). Hence, the hypothesis that the quality of life (physical and mental health) in adults with morningness and eveningness preferences is approved, and there is a significant difference.

  Conclusion Top

This study was carried out to determine the difference in the quality of life for adults with morningness and eveningness preferences. The results showed that there are significant differences in quality of life in adults with morningness and eveningness preferences. This means that quality of life scores (physical health and mental health) in patients with morningness preferences is more. These results are consistent with Randler [19] and Sheikh and Samaria [7] who showed that morningness is happier and less pessimism and also is in line with the results of Cavaller, Giudici (2008)[23] who showed morningness is higher on happiness, positive attitudes, and vitality. Furthermore, Caci et al.[24] believe that morningness is more perseverance than eveningness types that is the important factor in the quality of life. In explaining this finding can be assumed that the behavioral and physiological variables are affected by different times of the day. For example, the temperature of morning type reaches its peak 30/1–3 h earlier than evening type. Stress reactivity can be influenced by time. Diaz-Morales found that people with evening type have more psychological disorders and more physical than morning types. Most emotional disturbance in evening type is may be due to the cycle sleep/wake that is not matched by conventional social work programs.[25] Studies on the type of time (morning-evening), it is proposed that kind of morning compared to the evening reported a more healthy lifestyle and type of evening have most of the psychological distress and psychosomatic.[25] Research also shows that morning type in terms of emotion are more stable, serious, and reliable.[26] Diaz-Morales also found that conscientiousness, realism, and conformity associated with more morning types.[27] Pessimism and low satisfaction and also tendencies of depression, morbid pathological behaviors, poorer health, and in terms of sleep health and life, is reported in patients with evening type.[28] Drugs abuse, smoking habits, irregularities in food intake,[27] menstrual pain, and depression are reported in evening type.[29] Research showed that in patients with anxiety and depression study, they get worse at the end of the day.[30]

Adequate sleep is one of the most basic elements of physical and mental health that the important requirement failure to comply by everyday life and hours of the day and is the underlying problems. Melatonin that is the responsible hormone for the production of healthy sleep affected by circadian rhythm. If circadian rhythm impaired, melatonin production is impaired and effect on healthy sleep patterns. Studies have shown that poor sleep patterns associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, depression, and some types of cancer. The researchers concluded that the risk of cardiovascular disease is more in people with evening type.[31]

This can impact on mental health and to have a periodic cycle, so both the physical and psychological damage impact on physical and mental health. Hence, we can say that the quality of life is more in morning type.

According to what was said the results of the study can be used:

  • Career counselors and industrial-organizational psychologists can properly plan for jobs with the characteristics and preferences of boarding to reduce the potential pressure on the people that leading to burnout
  • Marriage counselors to help couples and in premarital counseling, first consider each person's habits and then according to the personality offer their consulting services
  • Psychologists can help their clients by identify personality characteristics and habits of each individual or understanding readiness of the people for psychological symptoms
  • This research will help transport officials to adjust their sleeping and waking hours and protected their self from risks. Even its useful for families who are traveling with their own vehicle
  • The results of this study are the guidelines and strategies for the athletes to regulate their circadian patterns and promotion programs and exercise training according to their performance
  • The results of this research also have significant effect to improve sleep and to wake in the elderly.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Jones S. 2000. The Circadian Rhythm, Available from:www.serendip.com. [Last retrieved on 2005 May 21].  Back to cited text no. 1
Wilma EK. The Molecular Genetic of Circadian Clocks; 1999. Available from: http://www.scirus.com. [Last retrieved on 2005 Jun 25].  Back to cited text no. 2
Lanier JL. Terms of Circadian Rhythm; 1999. Available from: http://www.colostate.edu/depts/Entomology/courses/en507/papers1999/lanier.html. [Last retrieved on 2005 Apr 22].  Back to cited text no. 3
Nasri F. Circadian rhythms. Quarterly Analysis Training and Information. Growth. Education biology 2014;3:50-55.  Back to cited text no. 4
Rahafr A, Sadeghi-Jujil M, Sadegh Pour A, Mirzaei Sh. Evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of morning-evening (MEQ). J R Shahed Univ 2013;20:8.  Back to cited text no. 5
Natale V, Cicogna P. Morningness-eveningness dimension: Is it really a continuum? Pers Individ Dif 2002;32:809-16.  Back to cited text no. 6
Isazadegan A, sheikhi S, Asadi-Majareh S. Comparison of happiness and life satisfaction among the types of day. Urmia Med J 2013;2520-12.  Back to cited text no. 7
Tamanaei-far MR, Mansouri-nik A. Type of Boarding and Differences in Learning Styles and Thinking. First Conference on the Findings ofCognitive Science in Education. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; 2010. p. Ss223-30.  Back to cited text no. 8
Randler C, Díaz-Morales JF. Morningness in German and Spanish students: A comparative study. Eur J Pers 2007;21:419-27.  Back to cited text no. 9
Frank E. Treating bipolar disorder. In: Persons JB, editor. A Clinician's Guide to interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy. New York, London: The Guilford Press; 2005. p. 18-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
Caspi A, Sugden K, Moffitt TE. Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 2003;301:386-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
Fayers PM, Machin D. Quality of Life Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation. New York: John Willy; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 12
Ware JE Jr, Gandek B. Overview of the SF-36 health survey and the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project. J Clin Epidemiol 1998;51:903-12.  Back to cited text no. 13
Donald A. What is quality of life? 2001. Available from:http://www.jr2.ox.ac.uk. [Last retrieved on 2010 Aug 03].  Back to cited text no. 14
Bayat M, Bayat M. Quality of Life of Women in Mashhad, Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the Strategic Ideas of Women and Families, Cover Dvm; 2011. p. ss378-86.  Back to cited text no. 15
Dalkey NC, Rourke DL, Lewis R, Snyder D. Studies in the Quality of Life. Lexington, MA; Lexington Books: 1972.  Back to cited text no. 16
Orley J, Kuyken W. The WHOQoL Group development of the world health organization. Q life. Asses Intern Perspect 1994;12:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, Roenneberg T. Social jetlag: Misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiol Int 2006;23:497-509.  Back to cited text no. 18
Randler C. Differences between smokers and nonsmokers in morningness-eveningness. Soc Behav Pers 2008;36:673-80.  Back to cited text no. 19
Horne JA, Ostberg O. A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. Int J Chronobiol 1976;4:97-110.  Back to cited text no. 20
Montazeri A, Goshtasbi A, Vahdani-Nia M. (translation). Reliability and validity of the Persian version standard tool SF-36 quarterly Payesh, the fifth year, the first edition, 2005. p. 49-56.  Back to cited text no. 21
Maulvi H. SPSS. A Practical Guide to Behavioral Sciences. Isfahan: The Pooyesh Andishe Pub.; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 22
Cavaller GM, Giudici S. Morningness and eveningness personality: A survey in literature from 1995 up till 2006. Pers Individ Dif 2008;44:3-21.  Back to cited text no. 23
Caci H, Robert P, Boyer P. Novelty seekers and impulsive subjects are low in morningness. Eur Psychiatry 2004;19:79-84.  Back to cited text no. 24
Díaz-Morales JF, Sánchez-López MP. Morningness-eveningness and anxiety among adults: A matter of sex/gender? Pers Individ Dif 2008;44:2012-401.  Back to cited text no. 25
De Young CG, Hasher L, Djikic M, Criger B, Peterson JB. Morning people are stable people: Circadian rhythm and the higher-order factors of the big five. Pers Individ Dif 2009;43:267-76.  Back to cited text no. 26
Diaz-Morales JF. Morning and evening types: Exploring their personality styles. Pers Individ Dif 2007;43:769-78.  Back to cited text no. 27
Randler C. Gender differences in morningness-eveningness assessed by self-report questionnaires: Meta-analysis. Pers Individ Dif 2007;43:1667-75.  Back to cited text no. 28
Negriff S, Dorn LD. Morningness/Eveningness and menstrual symptoms in adolescent females. J Psychosom Res 2009;67:169-72.  Back to cited text no. 29
Cameron OG, Lee MA, Kotun J, McPhee KM. Circadian symptom fluctuations in people with anxiety disorders. J Affect Disord 1986;11:213-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
Isazadegan A, sheikhi S, Ahmadian L. investigate the relationship between circadian types (morning-evening) and anxiety among students. Urmia Med J 2010;22:137-45.  Back to cited text no. 31


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded97    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal