• Users Online: 165
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 168-172

Effectiveness of smart training on creativity and achievement motivation in science course of sixth-grade students of primary schools


1 Department of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar Branch, Sabzevar, Iran
2 Computer Engineering and IT Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication29-Nov-2017

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ali Mohammad Naemi
Department of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar Branch, Sabzevar
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jepr.jepr_66_16

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smart training on creativity and achievement motivation of primary schools of Sabzevar (Iran).
METHODS: This research was a semi-experimental study using pre- and posttest with control group. Population included all male students in the sixth grade of primary schools in 2014. The sampling method in this study was random clustering and the sample size was equal to 58. The required data were collected using Abedi's Creativity Scale and Hermans Achievement Motivation Scale. The experimental group was trained by smart teaching and control group by traditional methods. The research was carried out for one semester. SPSS software, descriptive statistics, and covariance analysis were used to analyze data.
RESULTS: The results showed that there are significant differences between the scores of two groups.
CONCLUSION: According to the results, it can be said that the smart training increases the creativity and achievement motivation more than the traditional methods.

Keywords: Achievement, creativity, motivation, smart training


How to cite this article:
Naemi AM, Naemi A. Effectiveness of smart training on creativity and achievement motivation in science course of sixth-grade students of primary schools. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2017;3:168-72

How to cite this URL:
Naemi AM, Naemi A. Effectiveness of smart training on creativity and achievement motivation in science course of sixth-grade students of primary schools. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 18];3:168-72. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2017/3/3/168/219426




  Introduction Top


Nowadays, around the world, every country is seriously thinking of promoting the quality of education system. Globalization has led to a technical development in communication that allows us to access and exchange information whenever we want from anywhere. Technology has an important effect on education. Children need various skills in today's competitive world, which are beyond knowledge and require analyzing, combination power, and evaluation. In this regard, the role of smart schools is quite important.

Quality of education is an essential need in today's competitive environment. Technology has benefitted us in every aspect of our life, right from communication to education. However, effective use of technology to enhance the quality of teaching is a very challenging problem. The technology has been used to improve the quality of instruction. With the passage of time and progress in science and technology, new methods of teaching have been introduced, and today we witness one of the most versatile gifts of science, known as smart school.[1] Smart schools refer to schools that have Internet for all students and take advantage of the latest technologies in teaching and school management. Classes are equipped with features such as cameras, television screens, electronic whiteboard and other educational tools, and a computer laboratory for leisure time and searching for scientific articles. In these schools, students can use laptops or mobiles with wireless networks and software facilities and Internet. Hence, smart schools have necessary and sufficient substructures to develop information technology and prepare facilities for use of all students and teachers. Students at smart schools have the roles of learners and teachers. In these schools, the curriculum is not restrictive, i.e., students can go ahead of curriculum, and the teaching method is student centered. Emphasis on the skills of thinking and providing an appropriate teaching–learning environment is one of the strategies of smart schools.[2]

The creativity is the generation of new and valuable ideas.[3] Vernon knows that creativity is an ability to generate ideas, insights, reconstructions, innovations, or artistic matters, which, according to experts, has scientific, esthetic, social, and technological values.[4] Guildford defines creativity as an equivalent to divergent thinking (to achieve new approaches to solve the problems) versus convergent thinking (achieving the correct answer). In his opinion, creativity is made of some factors such as fluency, flexibility, and invention, which constitute productive thinking.[5] Creative thinking is one of the ten basic skills (WHO), and it is a powerful way to engage students in learning. Questioning in class makes creativity.

Students could not be creative if they are asked to do things in the way which they were trained.[6] Torrance investigation showed that pure creativity usually has visual forms. Therefore, digital arts activate students in creating visual creativity (art, industry), and this has a dramatic effect on their minds' stimulation.[7] Velev reviewed the previous researches and concluded that the effectiveness of this type of learning is more than other types of learning including electronical learning.[8] The results of research showed that the curriculum which is based on a weblog and e-learning is effective on creativity of students of high schools.[9],[10],[11]

Achievement motivation is expressed as the personal enthusiasm and effort to reach the goal of achieving a mastery of objects, things, people, ideas, or a superior measure.[12] In other words, the concept of achievement motivation is incentive to overcome obstacles and fight with what is known as difficulties.[13] Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can play a role in motivation in three ways: (1) involving students in learning, (2) stimulating interests of students, and (3) making learning more pleasant using a variety of contents, sounds, pictures, and films.[14]

Various researches showed that using ICT by learners has an important role in increasing the motivation to learn and make them more confident so that they can be involved in the learning process.[14] The findings of Rostami et al. also indicate that smart schools increase the motivation to learn, read, and understand the materials.[15]

ICT causes positive attitude in students toward smart schools. They demand the use of technology in the learning process and they know it as a privilege.[16] Meshkat and Froozeshnia also found that the use of weblogs and computers will create a positive attitude and motivation for foreign language learners.[17] Overall, smart training makes significant changes in the process of teaching–learning by integration of ICT and curriculum. In this type of schools in which teachers are guides, the role of students as active, creative, and participatory members changes, the evaluation system becomes process oriented instead of product oriented, and creativity and motivational achievement of the students are increased.[18]

In the recent years, many efforts have been made to develop skills of observation, measurement, using tools, understanding and interpretation of data, and problem-solving, and the development of creativity and motivation is considered as the main objective of education. Iran's educational system still emphasizes on learning through traditional teaching methods. In other words, strategies adopted for the development of creativity and achievement motivation in the current curriculum are not enough. Realization of these goals is possible only through precise designed training. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of smart training on creativity and motivation in science course of male students in the sixth grade of primary schools of Sabzevar (Iran). The hypothesis of this research includes the following:

  • There is a significant difference between creativity of students in traditional and smart schools
  • There is a significant difference between achievement motivation of students in traditional and smart schools.



  Methods Top


This was a semi-experimental study using pre- and posttest with control group. The population of this study included all male students in the sixth grade of primary schools in Sabzevar in 2014. The participants were selected randomly using a cluster sampling method. First, five schools, which are made smart in the city, are matched to five ordinary schools with the help of an educationalist of Education Office of Sabzevar. Second, one school from each type was selected randomly (one smart school and one ordinary school). Then, one class was chosen from selected schools randomly (31 persons in the experimental group and 29 persons in the control group). The experimental group was taught by smart teaching and control group was taught by traditional methods for one semester. Both groups completed the questionnaires of creativity and motivation in the pre- and posttest. Data were collected and analyzed by descriptive statistics and covariance analysis using SPSS software (IBM company, USA, version 20).

Instruments

Abedi creativity scale

This scale was developed by Abedi. This scale has sixty items, and it is a 3-point Likert type. The maximum score is 180 and minimum is 60. Reliability reported is 0.82 using Cronbach's alpha and 0.83 with the two-halves method.[19]

Herman's achievement motivation scale

This scale was developed by Hermans (1987). This scale has 29 items and four options (from low to high or high to low). Therefore, some of the questions are positive and some are negative. The scores obtained indicate the level of achievement motivation of individuals. Reliability reported is 0.84 using Cronbach's alpha and 0.74 by the test–retest reliability method.[20]


  Results Top


First, descriptive statistics of variables are demonstrated. After that, the results of analysis of covariance are shown in [Table 1].
Table 1: Descriptive analysis of creativity and achievement motivation score in pre- and posttest in control and experimental groups

Click here to view


To ensure the equality of variances (the default covariance analysis), Levene's test was conducted [Table 2]. The results showed that the level is significantly higher than 0.05. Therefore, the assumption of equality of variances of scores was confirmed in both experimental and control groups.
Table 2: Results of Levene's test for studying the variance equality in the groups in creativity and achievement motivation

Click here to view


The results of analysis of covariance showed in [Table 3] that there is a significant difference between the scores of creativity (F = 74.65, P < 0.01). Eta index indicated that 76% of creative scores related to smart training. Other researches indicated that there is a significant difference between the scores of achievement motivation (F = 77.30, P < 0.01), and Eta index indicated that 39% of achievement motivation scores related to smart training.
Table 3: Results of ANCOVA analysis on pre- and post-test average points of the two groups in creativity and achievement motivation

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


This study aimed to investigate the effect of smart training on the development of creativity and achievement motivation. The results of this research showed that students with training of smart schools had higher creativity than those with training of ordinary schools. The development of ICT in different social systems has brought about basic evolutions in different economic, social, cultural, and educational fields. The emergence of international competition, the effect of new technologies in all aspects of humans' lives, globalization, and the importance of human capital in the age of knowledge and development show that the requirements of today's education are not same as the requirements in the past.

The advancement of ICT and its effect on teaching and learning have provided opportunities to create learning environments which are well designed, learner based, interesting, interactive, efficient, flexible, significant, and facilitated.[21] ICT is an important tool of creative teaching and teaching for creativity. The concept of constructivism and socioconstructivism is the basic frame for different types of inclusive teaching.[22] New technologies can be used in educational settings to enhance learning, and many researchers found that the application of ICT across a range of school subjects can provide a different, creative, and collaborative process in the classroom.[23] Smart training increases students' curiosity and active cooperation to coordinate the efforts of students and teachers to satisfy educational requirements. Smart training makes it possible for students to develop their talents using different learning techniques and multimedia instruments (visual, verbal, auditory, and practical). In general, the findings of this study were in line with the results of the researches conducted by Velev,[8] Golkari et al.,[9] Banihashem et al,[10] and Behzadi and Manuchehri.[11]

In this study, the results also showed that students with training of smart schools had higher achievement motivation than those with training of ordinary schools. According to Bandura's social cognitive theory, motivation is “goal-directed behavior instigated and sustained by expectations concerning the anticipated outcomes of actions and self-efficacy for performing those actions.”[24] Smart training makes significant changes in the process of teaching–learning by integration of ICT and curriculum. In this type of schools in which teachers are guides, the role of students as active, creative, and participatory members changes, the evaluation system become process oriented instead of product oriented, and creativity and motivational achievement of students are increased.[18] Face-to-face and online transferring can facilitate the spread of new theories and ideas and increase motivational achievement and interest of students.[25] The findings of other researches showed that e-learning and smart schooling increase the motivational achievement of students (Golkari et al.,[9] Rostami et al.,[15] and Noori [18]). The aforementioned findings confirm the results of this study.


  Conclusion Top


The current study attempted to investigate the effect of smart training on the development of creativity and achievement motivation. According to the findings of this research, it can be said that one of the important factors affecting students' creativity and achievement motivation is quality of teaching and training. In smart schools, students are the center of training and teachers have a significant role in increasing creativity and achievement motivation of students by their reciprocity to their students and timely guidance. Students in smart schools learn how to use smart boards, educational software, and Internet. They can use the available information in this environment to focus on school-related and nonacademic activities in their leisure time; this has helped in increasing creativity and achievement motivation.

Limitations and suggestions

This study focused on the sixth-grade male students of primary schools of Sabzevar (Iran) and cannot be generalized on other grades, gender, and levels of school. Researchers can conduct research on other groups and courses. Another limitation was the small sample size. It is recommended to conduct research on a larger sample size. Furthermore, in this study, quantitative methods were used. It is suggested to use qualitative methods such as interviews and observations.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Chachra IK. Effect of smart classroom assisted teaching on academic achievement of students of different intelligence level in social science. Abhinav Natl Mon Refereed J Res Arts Educ 2015;4:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Reiesdana F. Application and benefits of using information technology. Educ Technol 2006;3:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hennessey BA, Amabile TM. Creativity. Annu Rev Psychol 2010;61:569-98.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Davis MA. Understanding the relationship between mood and creativity: A meta-analysis. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 2009;108:25-38.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nusbaum EC, Silvia PJ. Are intelligence and creativity really so different? Fluid intelligence, executive processes, and strategy use in divergent thinking. Intelligence 2011;39:36-45.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fisher, R. Williams, M. Unlocking Creativity: A Teacher's Guide to Creativity Across the Curriculum (Unlocking Series) Paperback. Routledge; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Torrance EP. Creativity in the Classroom. Washington, DC: National Education Association; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Velev E. Digital creativity: Advantages, problem, responsibility. Int J Inf Theories Appl 2008;11:60-67.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Golkari S, Ayati M, Rastgoo Moghadam M. The impact of blogs on innovative curriculum is based on high school students. J Technol Educ 2013;7:325-33.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Banihashem K, Tirandaz S, Shahalizadeh M, Mashhadi M. The effect of E-learning on students' creativity. Magazine of E-learning distribution in academy 2014;5(4), 53-61.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Behzadi MH, Manuchehri M. Examining creativity of students through smart board in learning mathematics. Math Educ Trends Res 2013:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Wilder B. Implication of the current theory of achievement motivation. Psychol Sch 1989;8:164-71.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Hejell A, Zigler DJ. Personality Theories Basic Assumptions: Research and Pale Cautions. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1992.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Rahmani J, Movahhdi N. Salimi GH. Educational training conceptual model of ICT in education. J Sci Res 2006;5:66-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Rostami S, Akbari O. Ghanizadeh A. The effect of smart school programs on EFL reading comprehension in an academic context. Int J Res Stud Educ Technol 2014;1:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Hamzah MI, Embi MA, Ismail A. ICT and diversity in learners' attitude on smart school initiative. Soc Behav Sci 2010;7:728-37.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Meshkat M, Froozeshnia S. The investigation of Iranian learners' CALL attitude and its relationship with academic self-regulation in learning EFL. J Technol Educ 2013;8:51-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Noori Y. Intelligent Schools in Developing and Implementing. Proceeding of the National Conference of New Technologies in Education; 30 June, 2013 and July 1; Isfahan: NaghshNegin: Summer; 2013. p. 18-9.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Abedi J. A latent-variable modeling approach to assessing reliability and validity of a creativity instrument. Creat Res J 2002;14:267-76.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Akbari B. Validity of motivation questionnaire of Hermans on students of high school in Gilan Province. Knowl Res Educ Sci 2007;16:73-96.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Mashayekh F. The position of pedagogy in quality of e-learning: From theory to application. Efficient Sch 2010;5:92-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Bjekiü D, Obradoviü S, VuÞetiü M. Students with Disabilities in E-Environment: Psychological View, 3rd E-learning Conference, 27-28 September, 2012, Belgrade. Proceedings: Belgrade: Metropolitan University; 2012. p. 150-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Gall M, Breeze N. Music and eJay: An opportunity for creative collaborations in the classroom. Int J Educ Res 2008;47:27-40.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Pintrich PR, Schunk DH. Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, and Applications. 2nd ed. Columbus, OH: Merrill Prentice Hall; 2002.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Boyle T, Bradley C, Chalk P, Jones R, Pickard P. Using blended learning to improve student success rates in learning to program. J Educ Media 2003;28:165-78.  Back to cited text no. 25
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed33    
    Printed2    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded14    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]