• Users Online: 229
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-19

A study of pedagogical aspects of a virtual university


Department of Education, Yadegar-e- Emam RAH, Shahr – e – Ray Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication3-Apr-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Davood Abdollahi
No 4. 1st Floor, Moezi Alley, Bazargan st. Motalebnejad st. Mohsain Azadi st. Sabalan Shomali st. Tehran
Iran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.229140

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 


AIMS: This study focuses on pedagogical aspects in virtual university. It is developed with regard to opinions of experts in education and E-learning in order to suggest a virtual university model based on pedagogical aspects. To study main pedagogical dimensions and categories in virtual universities.
METHODS: The descriptive-survey method is used in this research. It is developed with regard to opinions of experts in virtual education around the world. Delphi method is used in this study. A number of 1345 E-mail addresses of the experts found out from websites and journals and finally after several sending, 200 responders reply their answers. A research-made questionnaire is used in this research. The questionnaire is standardized by using experts review method and pilot study (α = 0.931). In present study Likert-type scale (5-point scale) was selected for each statement in the questionnaire. These items are used from 5 = strongly agree to 1 = strongly disagree as a questionnaire.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical techniques used for data analysis included t-test, ANOVA, and factor analysis.
RESULTS: The present study found the opinions of experts in education and E-learning about the application of pedagogical aspects in educational programs and curriculums on virtual universities. These opinions are clustered in small groups through factor analysis. Hence, 103 subcomponents about the pedagogical aspects were found out. With regard to factor analysis, these 103 subcomponents were grouped in 10 components. Out of 163 initial components, 103 components with regard to experts' opinion are obtained which are analyzed by factor analysis. Out of 103 components, only the first 10 rows are extracted for analysis and could explain the variances. The first 10 rows show cumulative value of 53.946%.
CONCLUSIONS: The 10 obtained components include philosophy and goals, theoretical framework, pedagogical principles, pedagogical functions, teacher's roles, technology and digital content, paradigms shift, learners' types, learners' roles, and evaluation. Consequently, it can be said that these pedagogical aspects can be used as an educational infrastructure of virtual university.

Keywords: E-learning, model, pedagogy, virtual university


How to cite this article:
Abdollahi D. A study of pedagogical aspects of a virtual university. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2018;4:12-9

How to cite this URL:
Abdollahi D. A study of pedagogical aspects of a virtual university. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Oct 24];4:12-9. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2018/4/1/12/229140




  Introduction Top


There are many universities around the world that provide virtual education. The creation of virtual learning environments requires the establishment of some changes in the pedagogical methods.[1] Therefore, along with the technological issues, identifying the substructures of pedagogy of this environment seems necessary; otherwise, employing traditional methods in modern ones cause problems in the success of this program. Using the web as a main media in education requires developing new structures, modern paradigms, support mechanism of learning sources, new teaching and pedagogic skills and methods.[2]

A number of studies have been conducted on virtual university. Tracy et al.[3] studied on the centrality of community to effective teaching and learning. Martin and Parker [4] studied on “descriptive use of synchronous virtual classrooms in higher education.” Zammit,[5] studied on transition pedagogy and core foundation units. Seyed Danesh et al.[6] studied on the relationship of components: Learner interface, learning community, personalization, and content with satisfaction. Skalka et al.[7] studied on the evaluation process for E-learning courses. Abdoli et al.'s [8] attempts to show there are trends that must be mentioned as virtual universities progress. These are educational, technical, and legal (sociocultural) trends. Brinkerhoff [9] concluded that a learning environment should be built over a clear model of instruction. Instructional technology, E-learning design, and operational psychology play major roles in this point. Nachimuthu [10] has shown that in E-learning just having appropriate technology is not enough to success. Miller [11] has shown that in virtual university each of the three elements, pedagogy, space and technology, influence each other in a reciprocal fashion. Iqbal and Ahmad [12] focused on different dimensions in E-learning, including concept and rationale of E-learning, its significance and quality of the education, for the enhancing quality of education through E-learning.

A critical review of virtual university literature has revealed that there are many different terms associated with virtual universities. Virtual universities are also known as virtual teaching/learning environments: Online teaching/learning, web-based teaching/learning environments, virtual learning communities, and flexible learning environments.

Existing literature from the virtual university field has identified some researches associated with the transformation from a traditional classroom-based university to a virtual university. Some of these issues include the following:

  • The effect that the introduction of virtual universities has on the learning approach
  • The effect that virtual universities have on academic research
  • The effects that virtual universities have on the knowledge base of students
  • The effect that virtual universities have on the required skill set for academic
  • How virtual universities change the role of the traditional student and academic
  • The advantages of virtual universities
  • The disadvantages associated with virtual universities.


A number of studies have been conducted on virtual universities. Some studies dealt with model of virtual university. But most of them studied about the roles of technology in education. Not many studies were in relation to pedagogical aspects on virtual university. There were some studies in relation to pedagogical aspects, such as teaching and learning process, motivation, types of learning, and types of educational evaluation. These studies have become the foundations for the present study.

Overall, the review of researches shows that E-learning is still at an infant stage, in spite of the tremendous developments in the IT sector.

Virtual universities like traditional universities are required to have pedagogical components. It means they need programs, policies, strategies, goals, and methods. Therefore, it seems that in developing any virtual education, determining pedagogical components and subcomponents are emphasized and focused. This enterprise has evoked the researcher to perform the present research. Based on the problem identified, objectives of the study were formulated. An objective of the study is to study main pedagogical dimensions and categories in virtual universities.


  Methods Top


The main purpose of the current research is to study main pedagogical dimensions and categories in virtual universities. Descriptive-survey method is used to conduct the study. Population for the present study consists of all experts and specialists in education and E-learning who worked in the virtual universities around the world. They are experts in theoretical concepts of education and have experience in E-learning and virtual university. And they are also experts in courses of social science, engineering, and medical science.

List of virtual universities that were available on the websites and also papers was drawn to serve as the population of the study. The E-mail addresses of specialists in education and E-learning were drawn of them. Finally 1345 E-mail addresses of experts were collected from the websites of virtual universities and journals. The Delphi method is used to data collection. The collected E-mail addresses were checked by sending E-mail to all addresses. But just 513 E-mail addresses have been correct and the rest of them were blocked or wrong. Only 246 could respond back to participate in the study that only 200 respondents belonging to education and E-learning. It means the sample included 200 respondents.

The following tools were used in the present investigation.

The questionnaire for experts: The tool consists of two parts:

  1. Personal data sheet of experts gives information about gender, field of study, specialized field, teaching experience, working place, and qualification
  2. The opinion of experts about utilization of the pedagogical aspects in virtual universities, include teachers' roles, learners' roles, learning and E-learning theories, basic principles in virtual universities, contents in E-learning, the role of technology in E-learning, and evaluation of educational processes in a virtual university.


There were two phases for developing questionnaire.

At first phase, the initial draft of the questionnaire contained 153 items in 13 sections. The first 10 items consisted of independent variables were included in the personal data sheet of experts and 153 items were of dependent variable included in the questionnaire. According to the experts' opinions out of 10 items from the personal data sheet of experts, 6 items are retained and 4 items are eliminated. And also out of 153 items, 126 items are retained and 27 items are eliminated. There were a total of 132 items included in the questionnaire given to the experts.

At second phase, the obtained questionnaire with 132 items (126 items about pedagogy and 6 items about personal information) were sent to respondents.

In the present study, Likert-type scale (5-point scale) was selected for each statement in the open air. These items are used from 5 = strongly agree to 1 = strongly disagree as a questionnaire. In order to find the validity of the tool used in the pilot study, and incorporating the suggestions of experts to the tool, the tool was modified and used in this study. The researcher approached 30 experts in the field of education and E-learning. For the present study, researcher used the following procedures.

Content validity

Content validity is essentially based upon the judgment of experts. Almost of them expressed consensus among the questions that were included in the tools.

Face validity

Indicated the questionnaire appears was appropriate to the study purpose and content area. Reliability: The questionnaire is standardized by using experts review method and pilot study. In the pilot study, test and re-test procedure has been adopted, which was developed to investigate the opinion of experts in education and E-learning about pedagogical aspects. In this research-usable survey form, totaling 30 were received and processed using the Cronbach's alpha test to determine the reliability. The alpha coefficient for the 126 items is 0.931, suggesting that the items have relatively high internal consistency. Hence the reliability of the tools was established.

Factor analysis is used to analyze the data. The obtained Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin value (0.710) was more than 0.5 and shows that the size of the sample is adequate. And Bartlett's test is less than 0.001. Hence, factor analysis is used in this section. The next processing is total variance explained.


  Results Top


The findings of the present study can be broadly categorized in questionnaire which includes opinion of experts in education and E-learning. It has found 10 components (factors) and 103 subcomponents (items) as pedagogical aspects of the virtual university. The first 10 factors together account 53.946% of the total variance in main factors of pedagogical aspects. All the remaining factors are not significant. Overall, these 10 factors are named as below.

First factor

This componentincludes 10 subcomponents. In [Table 1], it can be seen that 10 items are substantially loaded on first factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named technology and digital.
Table 1: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to first factor (after naming to technology and digital content)

Click here to view


Second factor

This component includes 13 subcomponents. In [Table 2], it can be seen that 13 items are substantially loaded on second factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named pedagogical principles.
Table 2: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to second factor (after naming to pedagogical principles)

Click here to view


Third factor

This component includes six subcomponents. In [Table 3], it can be seen that 6 items are substantially loaded on third factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named pedagogical functions.
Table 3: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to third factor (after naming to pedagogical functions)

Click here to view


Fourth factor

This component includes 14 subcomponents. In [Table 4], it can be seen that 14 items are substantially loaded on fourth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named teachers' roles.
Table 4: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to four factor (after naming to teachers' roles)

Click here to view


Fifth factor

This component includes 10 subcomponents. In [Table 5], it can be seen that 10 items are substantially loaded on fifth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named evaluation.
Table 5: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to fifth factor (after naming to evaluation)

Click here to view


Sixth factor

This component includes 10 subcomponents. In [Table 6], it can be seen that 10 items are substantially loaded on sixth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named learners' types.
Table 6: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to sixth factor (after naming to learners' types)

Click here to view


Seventh factor

This component includes five subcomponents. In [Table 7], it can be seen that 5 items are substantially loaded on seventh factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named paradigm shift.
Table 7: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to seventh factor (after naming to paradigm shift)

Click here to view


Eighth factor

This component includes 15 subcomponents. In [Table 8], it can be seen that 15 items are substantially loaded on eighth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named theoretical framework.
Table 8: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to eighth factor (after naming to theoretical framework)

Click here to view


Ninth factor

This component includes 11 subcomponents. In [Table 9], it can be seen that 11 items are substantially loaded on ninth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named learners' roles.
Table 9: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to ninth factor (after naming to learners' roles)

Click here to view


Tenth factor

This component includes nine subcomponents. In [Table 10], it can be seen that 9 items are substantially loaded on tenth factor (component). According to the experts' opinion and based on conceptual meaning and roles of items (subcomponents), it is named philosophy and goals.
Table 10: Rotated component (factor) matrix with respect to tenth factor (after naming to philosophy and goals)

Click here to view


Constructive validity of pedagogical aspects

In order to find the constructive validity of these items, factor analyses, mean, and one-sample t-test were conducted. Findings show that every 103 items of items as a questionnaire have factor loading more than 0.40. Thus, the items have relatively high internal consistency.


  Conclusions Top


As observed from the related literature from various scholars and past researchers collected from secondary sources, i.e. textbooks, magazines, internet, and journals, it shows that virtual universities are still at an infant stage of pedagogy, in spite of the tremendous developments in the IT sector. A number of studies have been conducted on virtual university. Some studies were about model of virtual university [Table 10]. However, most of them studied about the roles of technology in education. Not many studies were in relation to pedagogical aspects on virtual university. There were some studies in relation to pedagogical aspects, such as teaching and learning process, motivation, types of learning, and types of educational evaluation. These studies have become the foundations for the present study.

Overall, the review of researches shows that E-learning is still at an infant stage, in spite of the tremendous developments in the IT sector. According to Georgieva et al.,[13] in the field of virtual learning technologies, the researches are not summarized and there is no common strategy and approach for virtual university model development. The use of pedagogical models assists this by identifying the requirements of E-learning tools that support how staffs want to teach and students want to learn.

A number of reviews of learning theories and their relevance to E-learning have been carried out. The researchers who focused on designing instructional models are Collis and Moonen [14] identified the institution, implementation, pedagogy and technology as the key components for developing online learning materials; Jolliffe et al.[15] described an 18-step process. Conrad's [16] development model for an e-learning experience has seven stages comprising 21 tasks. Mishra [17] identifies seven important factors when designing an online course. Alexander [18] concludes that successful E-learning takes place within a complex system involving the students' experience of learning, teachers' strategies, teachers' planning and thinking, and the teaching/learning context. However, they all emphasize the following issues:

  • Needs analysis that will investigate
  • Student profiles that will identify their needs and expectations
  • Institutional support for E-learning initiatives investigates
  • Pedagogical choices that meet the requirements of the subject and the needs of the target learner group (learning models, learning objectives, delivery methods, assessment, interaction)
  • Development strategy.


Some scholars like Nachimuthu,[19] Jarolimek, et al.[20] Smith [21] Bélisle,[22] Heiner et al.,[23] and Pearson and Koppi [24] studied about the roles of technology in education, usability of E-learning resources, conditions and limitations of multimedia, the feasibility of establishing a virtual university, intercultural dimensions, mechanism for course design and delivery, and staff development.

However, few scholars like Peter et al.,[25] Abdoli et al.,[26] Glen,[27] Ramirez et al.,[28] Amirian S,[29] Kanuka,[30] Miller,[31] and Salmon [32] studied on pedagogical aspects such as teaching and learning process, motivation, types of learning, and types of educational evaluation.

In addition, there were few studies in relation with virtual university models. Scholars like Skalka et al.,[33] Aoki,[34] Stein,[35] and Nagarajan and Jigi [36] proposed a model of virtual university. These studies were about “a quality evaluation model,” “a guide to delivering education,” and “elements, and process of virtual university.” It shows that to a large extent mention to pedagogical aspects is in minimal.

These studies have become the foundations for the present study. The present study is a factor analysis study among pedagogical aspects with regard to library study and the experts' opinion. No study was found in the area related to virtual university model wider array of pedagogical relevant variables.

As described, effective use of ICT in the process of education and working with virtual education environments require learners to accept new roles in the process of learning.

Using the web as a main media in education requires developing new structures, modern paradigms, support mechanism of learning sources, new teaching and pedagogic skills and methods.

Therefore, virtual universities are required to have programs, policies, strategies, goals, methods and in general, pedagogical of the very traditional, education. Therefore, it seems that in designing any virtual education, designing pedagogical substructure is emphasized and focused.

This enterprise has evoked the researcher to perform the present research due to “a study of pedagogical aspects of a virtual university.”

The present study found the opinions of experts in education and E-learning about the application of pedagogical aspects in educational programs and curriculums on virtual universities. These opinions are clustered in small groups through factor analysis. Hence, 103 subcomponents about the pedagogical aspects were found out. With regard to factor analysis, these 103 subcomponents were grouped in 10 components. These 10 components include philosophy and goals, theoretical framework, pedagogical principles, pedagogical functions, teacher's roles, technology and digital content, paradigms shift, learners' types, learners' roles, and evaluation.

Consequently, it can be said that these pedagogical aspects can be used to the following items:

  • Notice to the ability and skills of learners in the learning process and their communication with others in virtual space (based on the subcomponents of the competencies and roles of learners)
  • Using the rules or standards, especially the proper behavior in E-learning (with rely on the subcomponents of the pedagogical principles)
  • Focus on the abilities and skills of teachers in the teaching–learning process and promote them (with regard to the subcomponents of the competencies and roles of teachers)
  • Notice to the vision of educational theories related to some issues such as methods of studying, content-based, process-based, and media-based learning (with regard to the subcomponents of the pedagogical functions)
  • In order to determine educational goals to provide, introduction, coordination, development, and attempt to achieve service-learning (with regard to the subcomponents of the philosophy and objectives)
  • Notice to the information transfer way between teacher and learner and also to provide some chances for learners and learning (according to the subcomponents of digital content and technology)
  • To use in evaluation of educational services of a virtual university (with regard to the subcomponents of the evaluation system)
  • Emphasis on varieties of personality type of the learners and their ability to learn from which is used to choose the strategies of the teaching–learning process (according to the components of a variety of learners)
  • To help the researchers to design research questions, develop ideas and comments to provide the possible answers (with refer to subcomponents of the theoretical framework)
  • Emphasis on move from using one model of thinking in teaching and learning process in a completely different way of thinking (according to the subcomponents of the paradigm shift).


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Barajas M, Owen M. Implementing virtual learning environments: Looking for holistic approach. Educ Techno Soc 2000;3: 41, 46.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Abdollahi D. A Study of Pedagogical Aspects of a Virtual University: Developing a Model. A Ph.D. Dissertation. Educational Faculty of Osmania University, Hyderabad, India; 2015. p. 265-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Smith TW, Maiden E. Studied on Community without Compromise: Cultivating Interactivity in Online and Blended Learning Environments. The Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia; February 5-7, 2014. Available from: http://www.irma-international.org/viewtitle/114290/. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6280-3.ch005.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Martin F, Parker MA. Descriptive Use of Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Higher Education. The Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia; February 5-7, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Zammit B. Transition Pedagogy and Core Foundation Units: A Case Study, 16th International FYHE Conference 2013, the International First Year in Higher Education Conference; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Seyed Danesh SY, Hashemnia SH, Sirousbakht S, Ensie K. Investigation of related factors to satisfying electronic learners in virtual training of Iranian universities. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 2013;4:477-81. Science Explorer Publications. ©2013. Available from: http://www.irjabs.com/files_site/paperlist/r_701_130304203131.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Skalka J, Švec P, Drlík M. “E-Learning and Quality: The Quality Evaluation Model for E-Learning Courses”, DIVAI 2012 – 9th International Scientific Conference on Distance Learning in Applied Informatics; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Abdoli Sejzi A, Baharuddin A, Noraffandy Y. The phenomenon of virtual university in new age: Trends and changes. International Conference on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education in conjunction with Regional Conference on Engineering Education and Research in Higher Education. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012;56:565-72. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256494842_The_Phenomenon_of_Virtual_University_in_New_Age_Trends_and_Changes.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Brinkerhoff DA. Survey of Instructional Development Models. 3rd ed., Vol. 45. TechTrends; 2001. p. 48-50.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Nachimuthu K. Usability of eLearning Resources in Teacher Education of India the Seventh International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, Thailand; 16-17 December, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Miller B. Transformative Pedagogy: Meeting The Needs of the Digital Generation, Research; Vol. 1. 3 March, 2010. p. 2 Available from: https://thesustainabilityreview.org/transformative-pedagogy-meeting-the-needs-of-the-digital-generation/.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Iqbal MJ, Ahmad M. Enhancing quality of education through e-learning. Turk Online J Distance Educ 2010;11:84-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Georgieva G, Todorov G, Smrikarov A. “A Model of a Virtual University - Some Problems during Its Development”, CompSysTech. International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies - CompSysTech; 2003. p. 709-15. Available from: http://ecet.ecs.uni-ruse.bg/cst/docs/proceedings/S4/Iv-29.pdf.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Collis B, Moonen J. Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations. London: Kogan Page; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Jolliffe A, Ritter J, Stevens D. The Online Learning Handbook: Developing and Using Web-Based Learning. London: Kogan Page; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Conrad K. Instructional Design for Web-Based Training. Amherst: HRD Press; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Mishra S. Designing Online Learning, COL Knowledge Series, Vancouver: The Commonwealth of Learning; 2001. Available from: http://www.col.org/Knowledge/ks_online.pdf. [Last retrieved on 2004 May 19].  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Shirley Alexander SH. E-learning developments and experiences. Educ Train Bradford 2001;43:240-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Nachimuthu K. Usability of eLearning Resources in Teacher Education of India, the Seventh International Conference on eLearning for Knowledge-Based Society, Thailand; 16-17 December, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Jarolimek J, Vaněk, J, Černá, E, Šimek P, Vogeltanzová T. Conditions and Limitations of Multimedia Senior Education in Regions, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague; 2010;3. ISSN 2336-2375 (Printed).  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Smith L. Preparing faculty for instructional technology: From education to development to creative independence. ERIC Number: EJ554128. CAUSE/EFFECT 1997;20:36-44, 48.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Bélisle C. eLearning and Intercultural Dimensions of Learning Theories and Teaching Models. Buckingham: Society for Research in Higher Education, Open University Press; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Heiner M, Schneckenberg D, Wildt J. Online Pedagogy – Innovative Teaching and Lerning Strategies in Ict-Enviroments, Background Paper of the Cevu Workgroup Online Pedagogy, Grant Agreement Number: 2001-3453/001-001 EDU-ELEARN; 2007. p. 1-21.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Pearson E, Koppi T. A Pragmatic and Strategic Approach to Supporting Staff in Inclusive Practices for Online Learning. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Ascilite Conference: Who's Learning? Whose Technology? Ascilite 2006, the University of Sydney; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Peter F, Stephanie JB, Kurt V, Judith AP. Pedagogy First, Technology Second: Teaching and Learning Information Literacy Online. In QUT Online Learning and Teaching Conference 2003, Brisbane, Australia; November 5, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Sejzi AA, Bin BA, Bin NY. The phenomenon of virtual university in new age: Trends and changes. International Conference on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2012;56:565-72. Available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042812041511. [Last accessed on 2012 Oct 8].  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Glen MF, editors. The Development of Virtual Education: A Global Perspective. The Commonwealth of Learning. British Columbia Canada; 2001. Available from: http://www.col.org/virtualed/index.htm. [Last accessed on 2004 Apr 05].  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Ramirez Martinell A, Sime J, O'Donoghue M. Lillerhammer, Design of a Constructivist Learning Environment Virtual Composed by Video Summaries. Proceedings of the International Edutec 2006 Conference19-22 September, 2006, Education in Virtual Environments: Quality and Effectiveness in E-learning. Rovira I Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Amirian S. Pedagogy and Videoconferencing: A Review of Recent Literature, First NJEDge. NET Conference, Plainsboro, NJ; October 31, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kanuka H. Instructional design and eLearning: A discussion of pedagogical content knowledge as a missing construct. e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST) Vol. 9. Available from: http://ascilite.org/archived-journals/e-jist/docs/vol9_no2/papers/full_papers/kanuka.htm. [Last accessed on 2006 Sep].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Taylor EW. “Transformative Learning Theory” New Directions For Adult and Continuing Education, no. 119, Fall 2008 @ wiley Periodicals, Inc. Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI:10.1002/ace.301.   Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Salmon G. E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. London: Kogan-Page; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Skalka J, Švec P, Drlík M. E-Learning and Quality: The Quality Evaluation Model for E-Learning Courses, DIVAI 2012 – 9th International Scientific Conference on Distance Learning in Applied Informatics; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Aoki K, Pogroszewski D. Virtual university reference model: A guide to delivering education and support services to the distance learner. Online J Distance Learn Adm,1998. p. 13. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228682393_Virtual_university_reference_model_A_guide_to_delivering_education_and_support_services_to_the_distance_learner. [Last retrieved on 2015 Aug 27].  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Stein H. A model of virtual university. Turk Online J Distance Educ 2000;1:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Nagarajan P, Jiji GW. Online educational system (e-learning). Int J Serv Sci Technol 2010;3:37-48.  Back to cited text no. 36
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6], [Table 7], [Table 8], [Table 9], [Table 10]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Conclusions
References
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed537    
    Printed47    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded93    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]