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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2018
Volume 4 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-58

Online since Tuesday, April 3, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

The new face of learning: Social media innovating medical education p. 1
Imrana Zulfikar, Farhan Zaheer, Qamarudin Baloch, Farah Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_73_16  
BACKGROUND: The evolution of social media has not only altered the interaction mode but also affected the learning and teaching opportunities. Medical students worldwide are connected and oriented in social networking. Social media has also emerged as a new developing tool in medical education. The use of Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp has provided students a platform for interactive education, collaboration communication, and socializing. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate student's satisfaction on the use of social media WhatsApp for learning as part of clinical rotation and teaching. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in the Surgical Unit 1 Civil Hospital Karachi, Dow University of Health Sciences, from January 2015 till December 2015. The participants included were final-year MBBS students attending ward rotation. This was questionnaire-based study; students were given formed questionnaire to evaluate their responses in terms of level of satisfaction, improvement in learning, level of comfort, self-assessment, on Likert scale of 1–5, 1 being not helpful and 5 being highly informative. The results were analyzed with SPSS version 17. RESULTS: Most of the students participated at least twice weekly in a 3-month session of online discussion session on WhatsApp. Majority had satisfying experience with only 2% being not satisfied. Of all, 59.6% felt an improvement in their knowledge after sessions while 80% agreed with curriculum relevance. Majority (88%) said that they were motivated for more learning and helped in education. Self-assessments were also done with social media according to 76% of participants. Sixty percent showed great level of comfort with facilitator. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlights that the usage of social media in education and learning is helpful for the purpose of enhancing the interactive learning.
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The effectiveness of cooperative teaching method in mental health subject on the dimensions of emotional intelligence and academic achievement p. 6
Stare Kaviani, Zohre Saadatmand
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_77_16  
AIM AND PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cooperative teaching in mental health subject on the dimensions of emotional intelligence and academic achievement of students in vocational high schools in the education district 5 in Isfahan in the academic year 2015–2016. METHODS: The method of the study was quasi-experimental, and the sample consisted of two classes of 15 people (totally thirty students) who were selected by random sampling to participate in the study (study population consisted of two vocational schools, each of which has a class of 15 people). Then, the selected sample was randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group received the cooperative learning. Data collection tools were the achievement test consisting of twenty questions according to Bloom's taxonomy of objectives in cognitive domain and the scale of Bar-On Emotional Intelligence (1980) youth version consisting of ninety questions and five subscales (general mood, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, adaptability, and stress management). The Cronbach's alpha reliability for the questionnaire of emotional intelligence was 0.78. RESULTS: Data analysis was doneon two levels of descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (ANCOVA). The results showed that there was a significant difference at the level of P < 0.05 between academic achievement and emotional intelligence in groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Also, there was no significant difference at the level of P < 0.05 between groups in subscale scores in the dimensions of intrapersonal, stress management, and emotional intelligence. In addition, there was a significant difference at the level of P < 0.05 between groups in subscale scores in the dimensions of interpersonal, adaptability, and general mood level of emotional intelligence.
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A study of pedagogical aspects of a virtual university p. 12
Davood Abdollahi
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.229140  
AIMS: This study focuses on pedagogical aspects in virtual university. It is developed with regard to opinions of experts in education and E-learning in order to suggest a virtual university model based on pedagogical aspects. To study main pedagogical dimensions and categories in virtual universities. METHODS: The descriptive-survey method is used in this research. It is developed with regard to opinions of experts in virtual education around the world. Delphi method is used in this study. A number of 1345 E-mail addresses of the experts found out from websites and journals and finally after several sending, 200 responders reply their answers. A research-made questionnaire is used in this research. The questionnaire is standardized by using experts review method and pilot study (α = 0.931). In present study Likert-type scale (5-point scale) was selected for each statement in the questionnaire. These items are used from 5 = strongly agree to 1 = strongly disagree as a questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical techniques used for data analysis included t-test, ANOVA, and factor analysis. RESULTS: The present study found the opinions of experts in education and E-learning about the application of pedagogical aspects in educational programs and curriculums on virtual universities. These opinions are clustered in small groups through factor analysis. Hence, 103 subcomponents about the pedagogical aspects were found out. With regard to factor analysis, these 103 subcomponents were grouped in 10 components. Out of 163 initial components, 103 components with regard to experts' opinion are obtained which are analyzed by factor analysis. Out of 103 components, only the first 10 rows are extracted for analysis and could explain the variances. The first 10 rows show cumulative value of 53.946%. CONCLUSIONS: The 10 obtained components include philosophy and goals, theoretical framework, pedagogical principles, pedagogical functions, teacher's roles, technology and digital content, paradigms shift, learners' types, learners' roles, and evaluation. Consequently, it can be said that these pedagogical aspects can be used as an educational infrastructure of virtual university.
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Effectiveness of cognitive learning strategies on test anxiety and school performance of students p. 20
Roya Rasouli, Zeynab Mohammad Alipour, Taghi Pour Ebrahim
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_84_16  
AIM: This study aimed to effectiveness of cognitive learning strategies on test anxiety and school performance in female high school students. METHODS: The study was quasi-experimental with pretest–posttest and random assignment and control group. The sample consisted of 60 individuals selected randomly who were divided into two groups, i.e., one experimental group and one control group. Data were collected through scale of anxiety test Sarason test anxiety scale(SAT) and students' marks in the middle-term examination and the final examination were collected from the history book. At first, both experimental and control groups were pretested through test anxiety scale. Their marks in the middle-term examination in history were considered. Then, cognitive learning strategies, including repeating and reviewing, expanding, summarizing, comparing and organizing, were reached to experimental group in four sections. Both groups were posttested again by SAT after the intervention. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-independent) were used to analyze data with SPSS-21 software. RESULTS: The results of dependent and independent groups t-tests showed a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hence, it was concluded that training on cognitive learning strategies has a positive effect, leading to a reduction of test anxiety and enhancement of the guidance school girls' educational performance.
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The effectiveness of emotional schema therapy on psychological symptoms of patients with irritable Bowel syndrome p. 26
Arefeh Erfan, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Abolfazl Mohammadi, Peyman Adibi
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_46_16  
AIM: positive and negative emotional states are the most important factors in the process of treatment and prevention of psychosomatic diseases. This research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of emotional schemas therapy on the reduction of psychological symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: This research was implemented in the framework of single-subject experimental design using of stepwise multiple-baselines plan. Five patients with IBS were selected as convenience sampling on the base of the participation willingness of individuals to the research then received emotional schema therapy (EST). Research tools included ROME III scale, semi-structured interview for making DSM-IV interview, and depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) questionnaire. The analysis of data was done using visual analysis charts, recovery percentage, and reliable change index. RESULTS: The results showed patients that received EST detected decrease of the scores in DASS-21 rate than baseline (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: EST decreases psychological symptoms of patients with IBS. Therefore, it can be proposed as an alternative therapy or together with other therapies for these patients.
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Effects of entrepreneurial characteristic of school principals on evaluation of educational innovation p. 33
Setareh Mousavi, Mohammadreza Nlil, Ahmadreza Nasr
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_40_16  
AIM: The Ministry of Education has started extensive efforts to enhance innovation in schools so that staff structure and planning as well as management and scheduling of cultural and educational capacity of schools are better aligned with the aforementioned objective. The goal of the present study is to investigate the entrepreneurial characteristics of educational managers and its effects on the educational innovation. In this study, pragmatism, creativity, risk, challenge seeking, and ambiguity tolerance are considered as characteristics of entrepreneurial characteristics of school principals. METHODS: The research is of applied type, and qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to carry out the research. Our research methodology is causal-comparative and the population includes 100 Isfahan school principals during the educational year of 2014–2015. This study investigates one main hypothesis and four subhypotheses, and other characteristics such as gender, educational background of school principals, and ownership status of schools (being private or state owned) are also examined. For data collection purposes, Characteristics of Iranian Entrepreneurs Questionnaire with a reliability score of 0.94 and a questionnaire for measuring innovation are utilized. Our data analysis phase makes use of the independent samples t-test as well as Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULT: Our findings indicate that factors such as ownership status of schools and challenge-seeking traits are significantly related to the educational innovation of school organizations. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it is recommended to take steps toward increased decentralization of the educational system and greater consideration of organizational entrepreneurship in the body of education and training organization. Also, it is suggested that having more flexible and dynamic planning allows for better capitalization on personal entrepreneurial characteristics of educational managers.
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Exploring collective efficacy sources in the experiences of elite handball players: A qualitative study p. 42
Zahra Mohammadi, Zohreh Meshkati, Mehdi Zhianpour
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_3_16  
AIM: The aim of the present study was to explore collective efficacy sources in the experiences of elite handball players of Iran national team. METHODS: A qualitative phenomenological design was adopted. The sample under investigation included the handball players of Iran national team in 2014 that were selected through purposive and snowball sampling technique. The participants were eight men and four women voluntarily took part in the study. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were used. RESULTS: The results of the study were divided into two main dimensions, namely, team's internal sources and team's external sources. The internal sources included reliable characteristics of the coach, in-team interactions, team's achievements, and team cohesion. The external sources included financial and psychosocial supports. CONCLUSION: The research findings were complementary and special to other studies. Thus, it is recommended that the researchers pay more attention to the issue of collective efficacy sources in national handball team.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE Top

Effectiveness of the cool-down game in reducing emotional and behavioral problems of hyperactive children p. 52
Ezzat Hajimohammadi, Mostafa Najafi, Mozhgan Arefi
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.204122  
AIM: The goal of this study is to overview the effectiveness of cool-down game and the reduction of emotional and behavioral problems. The population of the study include 7–13-year-old kids living in Isfahan. Methods: The research method was experimental with pretest, posttest, and control group. Forty-four children of 7–13 years old were selected through simple random sampling method from the clients who had referred to the psychiatrists' clinics and were diagnosed of having hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit by the super specialist of child and adolescent psychiatrist, and they were randomly divided into two groups of control and experiment, each with 22 individuals. The experiment group was under sixteen 60 min training sessions by the help of cool-down game. The research tool was the Persian questionnaire of the strengths and difficulties (parent and teacher form) that all participants complete it as pretest and posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that from the parent's and the teacher's point of view, the cool-down game has been effective in significant decrease of emotional and behavioral problems. CONCLUSION: Therefore, this method can be used to reduce emotional and behavioral problems of hyperactive children.
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