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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of exercise during pregnancy among antenatal mothers
Elamurugan Sujindra, Arounassalame Bupathy, A Suganya, R Praveena
July-September 2015, 1(3):234-237
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158347  
Introduction: Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal health care services. Regular exercise is promoted for its overall health benefits. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, recommends that pregnant women can exercise moderately for 30 min on most days of the week. Methodology: A total of 200 antenatal mothers were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 25 questions (21 on knowledge, 3 on attitude and 1 on practice). For knowledge items categorical responses (yes, I don't know and no) were applied with an item score of '2', '1', '0' respectively for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice the answers were either yes, no. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Response rate was 100%. The age range of the study group was 18-35 years with a mean age of 25 ± 4.51 years. The majority of the study population were Hindus (81%), had undergone primary education (63%) and were homemakers (74%). The total mean knowledge score was 20.53 ± 2.08. 51% felt it was necessary to do exercise during pregnancy. 18% were practicing exercise in pregnancy. Conclusion: The knowledge of our women on exercise during pregnancy was less than average, and their attitude was favorable. However a very few were actually practicing exercise in pregnancy.
  5,350 577 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination in female nursing students
Elamurugan Sujindra, Thirthar Palanivelu Elamurugan
April-June 2015, 1(2):71-74
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152216  
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Lack of early detection leads to low survival rates in less developed countries. Breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, quick, and cost-free procedure for early detection. This study attempts to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding self-breast examination in a cohort of female nursing students. Methodology: A total of 254 female nursing students were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 21 questions (10 on knowledge, 5 on attitude, and 6 on the practice). For knowledge items, categorical responses (yes, I don't know, and no) were applied with an item score of "2," "1," "0," respectively, for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice, the answers were either yes, no or options were already specified. Results: Response rate was 94.5%. Total mean knowledge score was 14.08 ± 3.42. 87.5% accepted that early detection can improve the chance of survival. 89.2% have heard of BSE and agreed that BSE can help in early detection of breast cancer. 93.3% felt it was necessary to do BSE and 87.5% have done BSE before. 5% of nursing students felt that doing BSE was embarrassing. Only 33.3% preformed BSE regularly in a year. Conclusion: BSE functions as an effective preventive health behavior and an important component of any program for the early detection of breast cancer. Nursing students, being future health advisors, should be adequately informed about early detection methods and trained in BSE.
  3,544 437 -
Blackboard versus PowerPoint presentation: Students opinion in medical education
Mahalaxmi S Petimani, Prabhakar Adake
October-December 2015, 1(4):289-292
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.163935  
Aim: The aim was to get the students opinion regarding blackboard and PowerPoint (PPT) presentation in 1st year medical students and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both the methods. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire-based study was conducted in 1st year medical students. A total of 49 (n = 49) 1st year medical students were participated in the study. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire in English was used to collect data. A questionnaire containing 15 questions was used to assess views of students regarding blackboard and PPT teaching methods. Questionnaire forms were given after blackboard and PPT presentation on Biochemistry topic. Students were requested to fill the questionnaire forms and opine. Results: The results were analyzed by statistical analysis software version 16.0 (U.S.A) and expressed in percentages and displayed with the help of bar diagram and pie chart. In this study, blackboard teaching was the most preferred teaching aid (60.43%) compared to PPT teaching method (39.56%). However, more subject coverage (69.3%) and demonstrations of clinical conditions (69.3%) were better in PPT teaching when compared to blackboard teaching method. Conclusions: Blackboard teaching remains the best preferred teaching aid, which can be supplemented by PPT presentation for better understanding.
  3,448 348 -
Factors affecting physicians' behaviors in induced demand for health services
Saeed Karimi, Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Somaye Afshari
January-March 2015, 1(1):43-51
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147469  
Background and Aims : One of the controversial topics in the health economy is the theory of induced demand. Physicians as experts enjoy superior knowledge and information and can use their extra knowledge for persuading patients to use unnecessary healthcare. The objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting on physicians' behavior in induced demand using the experiences of the experts in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The research is applied a qualitative method. Semi-structured interview was used for data generation. Participants in this study were people who had been informed in this regard and had to be experienced and were known as experts. Purposive sampling was done for data saturation. Seventeen people were interviewed, and criteria such as data "reliability of the information" and "stability" were considered. The anonymity of the interviewees was preserved. The data are transcribed, categorized and then used the thematic analysis. Results : In the present study, 41 sub-themes and three main themes were extracted. The three main themes included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors, and economic factors. Each of these themes had sub-themes wh ich, for example, included the authority of physicians, competition among physicians, regulative and legal affairs, ethical factors, physician's customer focus, and physicians' tendency to maximizing profits. Conclusion : The results of the present study represent a comprehensive image of the reasons effective on physicians' behaviors in occurring induced demand. The most obvious findings of this research included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors and economic factors. In the domain of structural factors; improper supervision of medical indications, expectations of physicians to activate other medical sections, physicians' independency of insurance contracts, in the domain of factors due to statuses and behaviors, physicians' authority in patients' compliance, competition among physicians, physicians' customer focus physicians' insufficient knowledge and skills, lack of commitment to ethics, and in the domain of economic factors; physician's tendency to maximizing profits, improper dependency of physicians and other health services providers are among the factors of occurring induced demand.
  3,248 404 -
The relationship between happiness, self-control and locus of control
Seyede Golafrouz Ramezani, Abbas Gholtash
April-June 2015, 1(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152222  
Aim: The aim of this study was explored the relationship between happiness, self-control, and locus of control (LOC). Methods: Research method in this survey was descriptive and correlational. A sample of 200 college students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age was studied using cluster sampling method. To collect data, a use was made of three questionnaires included the Oxford Happiness Inventory, self-control scale of Nikmanesh [1] and Rotter's LOC. Data analysis involved multiple regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study indicated that, happiness is positively and significantly related to self-control. Furthermore, self-control was the strongest predictor for happiness. Conclusion: It was also suggested that self-control is positively and significantly related to LOC.
  3,159 295 2
Investigating the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse according to educators, officials, teenagers and young adults in the city of Isfahan
Rahele Samouei, Tayebe Tayebani, Ayatollah Sohrabi, Amrollah Ebrahimi, Hamid Nasiri
April-June 2015, 1(2):154-160
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152235  
Introduction: Given the current widespread nature of drug abuse worldwide, decrease in the average age of drug abuse and changing the drug abuse patterns from traditional drugs to industrial and synthetic ones and due to the negative consequences of drug abuse, investigating the subject of drug abuse has a high priority. The goal of this study is to determine the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse among teenagers and young adults. Methods: This study uses descriptive field method. Subjects included 600 individuals (300 individuals selected from among educators, managers, cultural and law enforcement officials, psychologists, social workers and consultants of government and private sectors and nongovernmental organizations in the city of Isfahan and 300 teenagers and young adults). The samples were selected using nonprobability and random sampling methods and were personally interviewed by psychology experts. The results of the interviews were categorized and coded and reported using descriptive statistics. Results: The most important stimulating factors for drug abuse in the target group are need for happiness and lack of proper recreational activities, facing problems and stress due to unemployment, mental and psychological problems and shortcomings and failures. Also, the most important factors inhibiting drug abuse are sports, proper recreational activities and being employed. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the views of both groups regarding drug abuse were similar and related to each other. Therefore, since prevention is better than cure, creating opportunities for entertainment, recreation and employment is of great importance.
  3,190 91 -
Relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment by employees' productivity (structural equations modeling)
Samaneh Salimi, Narges Saeidian
January-March 2015, 1(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147451  
Aim: The purpose of this study was determining causal relationships and modeling structural equations of relationships between quality of work life, psychological empowerment and employees' productivity of Municipal Administration of Zahedan. Methods: The method of the study is descriptive-causal - correlative. Statistical population of the study included administrative employees in municipality of center, district 1, 2, 3 of Zahedan in number of 257 people. Result: Findings of the study showed that the relationship of each variable, quality of work life and psychological empowerment, and employees' productivity and also relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment were significant (P ≥ 0.01). Discussion: Findings related to structural equations model showed that quality of work life had a direct effect on boosting employees' productivity, but its indirect effect on employees' productivity was more than its direct one which has played this role by boosting employees' psychological empowerment as an intermediate variable. Psychological empowerment also influences on employees' productivity.
  2,621 398 -
Item analysis of multiple choice questions: Assessing an assessment tool in medical students
Chandrika Rao, HL Kishan Prasad, K Sajitha, Harish Permi, Jayaprakash Shetty
October-December 2016, 2(4):201-204
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.189670  
Aim: Assessment is a very important component of the medical course curriculum. Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing, and using information from student's responses to assess the quality of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Difficulty index (P) and discrimination index (D) are the parameters used to evaluate the standard of MCQs. The aim of the study was to assess quality of MCQs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology. One hundred and twenty, 2nd year MBBS students took the MCQs test comprising 40 questions. There was no negative marking and evaluation was done out of 40 marks, and 50% score was the passing mark. Postvalidation of the paper was done by item analysis. Each item was analyzed for difficulty index, discrimination index, and distractor effectiveness. The relationship between them for each item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 20.0. Results: Difficulty index of 34 (85%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 2 (5%) item was too easy (P >70%), and 4 (10%) items were too difficult (P <30%). Discrimination index of 24 (60%) items was excellent (D >0.4), 4 (10%) items were good (D =0.3–0.39), 6 (15%) items were acceptable (D =0.2–0.29), and 6 (15%) items were poor (D < 0–0.19). A total 40 items had 120 distractors. Amongst these, 6 (5%) were nonfunctional distracters, 114 (95%) were functional distracters. The discrimination index exhibited positive correlation with difficulty index (r = 0.563, P = 0.010, significant at 0.01 level [two-tailed]). The maximum discrimination (D = 0.5–0.6) was observed in acceptable range (P = 30–70%). Conclusion: In this study, the majority of items fulfilled the criteria of acceptable difficulty and good discrimination. Moderately easy/difficult had the maximal discriminative ability. Very difficult item displayed poor discrimination, but the very easy item had high discrimination index, indicating a faulty item, or incorrect keys. The results of this study would initiate a change in the way MCQ test items are selected for any examination, and there should be proper assessment strategy as part of the curriculum development.
  1,695 936 -
Learning strategies and academic success in traditional and nontraditional higher education students
Alireza Ghasemizad
January-March 2015, 1(1):7-9
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147449  
Aim: This paper aimed at studying the learning strategies and effort/persistence of the traditional and nontraditional students. Method: Through cluster sampling, 245 students from four major and large Islamic Azad University branches in Iran were randomly selected, and questionnaires were distributed among them. The research method was correlation and casual-comparative. Cronbach's alpha method was used to calculate the reliability. The Item analysis and expert consensus were applied to calculate the validity of instruments. Results: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the learning strategies of these two groups of students. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the academic success of these two groups.
  2,316 221 -
The relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment
Kamal Naghipour, Hasan Galavandi
October-December 2015, 1(4):241-245
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.163938  
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment among Urmia University faculty members. Methods: The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 70 faculty members of Urmia University. The data for this study were gathered through two standard questionnaires of career anchors according to Schein model and of organizational commitment according to Meyer and Allen model. Result: Findings from this study indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between career anchor components and organizational commitment components and also technical, functional competence, general managerial competence, autonomy-independence, pure challenge, and life style are significant predictors of organizational commitment. Conclusions: It is obvious from the findings that there is a positive significant relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment. Thus, each organization should pay much more attention to career anchors and organizational commitment.
  934 1,538 -
Content analysis of peace education as one component of global citizenship education in elementary textbooks
Meimanat Abedini Baltork, Sirus Mansoori, Yaser Azad
January-March 2015, 1(1):28-35
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147463  
Peace education is now a required component of the national curriculum that must be taught by all schools. Hence, it is necessary that peace education components be included in school curricula. So this paper looked at peace education in content of primary textbooks. In other words, Main purpose of this survey was content analysis of primary school textbooks based on peace education components such as "Sense of solidarity," "sense of responsibility to others," "recognizing diversity," "loving others" "discrimination and denial of ethnic, racial or religious." The method of used in the content analysis is Entropy Shanon method based on quantitative content analysis. Unit of analysis is concepts (such as sentence, question, practice, and images) related to cited components in the elementary textbooks. The results showed that "Sense of solidarity" components have the most frequency and lowest frequency related to rejection of ethnic, racist and religious discriminations component.
  1,670 175 -
The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment: A case study of female teachers
Kamal Naghipour, Hasan Galavandi, Masumeh Alizadeh, Motadaien Ebrahim
April-June 2015, 1(2):80-86
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152219  
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment of female teachers in Iran. Methodology: One hundred fourteen female teachers were randomly selected using descriptive-correlational method. For data gathering, the Colquitt's Organizational Justice Questionnaire and May-Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were used. The validity of the questionnaires was verified according to the viewpoints of experts in educational sciences and management. The reliability of the questionnaires estimated using Cronbach's α coefficient in a primary study on a 30-people sample, organizational justice questionnaire α =0.913 as well as Organizational Commitment Questionnaire α =0.924. After data gathering, they were analyzed based on research hypotheses using multivariate analysis of variance as well as multiple regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between all components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment. In addition, there is a significant predictive relationship among procedural justice, interactional justice, and distributive justice with continuous commitment and normative commitment. Conclusion: According to the theory of equity, it can be predicted that the personnel reacts toward the presence or absence of organizational justice at workplace. The increase of attachment and dependence is one of such reactions. That is, if the personnel witness that justice is not observed in the organization, they will feel some sort of tension, and therefore, they try to reduce their own dependency and commitment to the organization. In such cases, their organizational commitment may be diminished. Conversely, if they feel that organizational justice exists in the organization, they will be motivated to embrace more duties, tasks, and responsibilities so that, thereby, they would fulfill their debts to their career and consequently their organizational commitment would be increased.
  1,566 247 -
Designing environmental literacy curriculum for secondary school education system in Iran: Using an integrated approach
Mahboubeh Soleimanpour Omran, Mohammad H Yarmohammadian
April-June 2015, 1(2):113-118
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152224  
Aim: This study was aimed to design environmental literacy curriculum for secondary school education system in Iran using an integrated approach. Methods: This study is a quantitative type. Theory basis, former resources, and environmental literacy component were extracted from theoretical resources and research background using a descriptive narrative overview, and then the proposed environmental literacy training framework study were classified as four elements (purpose, content, methods of teaching-learning and evaluation) that consists of three components of knowledge, skills, and attitude to the environment. Result: Data were presented to environmental experts and curriculum developers. Kolmogorov-Smirnov single group test, binomial distribution test, single group t-test, and Friedman test with SPSS software (version 20) were used for analysis purposes. Binomial distribution and t-test results (P ≤ 0.05) represent the item's importance in the views of the participants. Conclusion: The findings show that develop the four basic elements of the curriculum based on the integrated approach, based on three main components of the knowledge, skills, and attitude, facilitate environmental literacy in high school students. In this context, it can be a combination of objectives, content, teaching methods, and evaluation are applying. Environmental literacy Integrated method proposed in this research is cross disciplinarily.
  1,576 201 -
Social loafing among nurses and its relation with organizational justice
Manal Etemadi, Mohsen Ghaffari Darab, Elahe Khorasani, Fardin Moradi, Habibeh Vazirinasab
April-June 2015, 1(2):125-130
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152226  
Background and Aims: Social loafing refers to individuals' tendency to exert fewer efforts when they work in a group than when they work alone. Individuals who feel the injustice in an origination are likelier to tend to this phenomenon. The present study is meant to investigate social loafing and its relation with organizational justice among nurses of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive one. The population of this study included all nurses working in the Tohid Educational and Health Center in Sanandaj City. The instrument of collecting data was a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, New York, USA) and employing descriptive statistics techniques such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, and inferential ones such as Spearman, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results : On the basis of the findings of the research, among the distributive, interactional, procedural and systemic organizational justice, there is a reverse correlation between distributive component and social loafing (P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate that the mean of social loafing in females is more than that of males (P < 0.05). Further, the variable of years of experience is effective on the mean scores of individuals' loafing (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The hospital should try reduce the possibility of social loafing in order to prevent the negative effects related to loafing. One-way for attaining this aim is to highlight the importance of the job in such a way that individuals take their tasks and objectives as significant and important; further the nursing role in caring patients should be considered as outstanding.
  1,566 180 -
The effectiveness of emotional intelligence on job burnout mediated the self-efficacy among elementary teachers
Reza Barari, Laleh Jamshidi
July-September 2015, 1(3):212-220
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158328  
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence (EI) on job burnout among primary school teachers in Babol mediated the self-efficacy (S.E.). Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study clearly based on structural equation modeling (SEM). The participants of this study were 225 primary school teachers of public schools in Babol in academic year 2014 that were selected via cluster random sampling method. Participants completed Maslach and Jackson's job burnout inventory, teacher S.E. questionnaire (by Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk,) and EI questionnaire (by Schutte,) by individual method and reliability and validity of these questionnaires was obtained. Results: Results of Pearson correlation showed that all EI, job burnout and S.E. components are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Implementing SEM with (partial least squares-SEM) for relationship between EI and job burnout through mediator variable S.E. tests, we found that the proposed model has a good fit and burnout is well explained by EI and S.E. Furthermore, all of the model path coefficients were significant.
  1,472 235 -
Acceptance and commitment therapy on parents of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders
Shuvabrata Poddar, VK Sinha, Mukherjee Urbi
July-September 2015, 1(3):221-225
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158331  
Aim: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that hinder the normal developmental process and pose enormous challenges to the parents in terms of their role expectations and adjustment with the irreversible conditions of their child. However, little attention has been paid to their psychological needs and wellbeing. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focuses on accepting things that are beyond control and commit to changing those things, which are possible to change, by increasing the psychological flexibility of the person, thereby aiding to better realistic adjustments. The present study aims at studying the effectiveness of ACT on parents of children and adolescents with ASDs. Materials and Methods: It followed a repeated measures design, comprising five parents having children and adolescents with ASDs receiving treatment from inpatient and outpatient services of Child Guidance Clinic, Central Institute of Psychiatry, to test the effect of 10 session protocol spanned over 2-month. Assessment measures were done along state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF respectively. Baseline measures were taken prior to the treatment and follow-up measures were taken after nine treatment sessions. Results: Pre- to post-treatment improvements were found on state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life. Conclusion: Findings implied that ACT may have promise in helping parents better to adjust to the difficulties in rearing children diagnosed with ASDs.
  1,478 223 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Psychological experiences of women regarding menopause
Rahele Samouei, Mahboubeh Valiani
January-March 2017, 3(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.179065  
Introduction: Menopause is one of the stages of life for women that cause a wide variety of symptoms, effects, and sometimes limitations. Therefore this study aims to describe the psychological symptoms of postmenopausal women. Method: This is a qualitative study using phenomenological method on postmenopausal women in the city of Isfahan. The sampling was at first carried out using simple sampling and later using snowball sampling method. The data gathering tool as interviews carried out in the office of obstetricians and gynecologists. Data were classified using colaizzi's seven stage data analysis method. Results: Various psychological symptoms were reported in the interviews which can be summarized as irritability, aggression, fatigue, feelings of helplessness, and uselessness. Conclusion: During the interviews, postmenopausal women mentioned a variety of psychological symptoms that can cause limitations and hardships and require suitable support and follow-up.
  1,534 137 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hierarchical analysis of persian version of diagnostic assessment of personality pathology-basic questionnaire and efficiency of its factors in predicting personality disorders
Mehdi Rezaee, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi, Samira Goodarzi, Hossein Shahahmadi
January-March 2015, 1(1):52-58
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147470  
Objectives: Hierarchical personality models have potential efficiency to identify specific components of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) personality disorders (PDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate to factor structure of personality pathology as measured by the Diagnostic Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), and to examine the capacity of the components of the DAP-BQ hierarchy to predict PDs symptoms. Materials and Methods: Students of Allame Tabatabii and Lorestan University (189 male, 176 female) and psychiatric outpatients of Loghman and Emam Hossein Hospitals (116 male, 159 female) were selected via convenient and voluntary sampling methods. Then completed the DAP-BQ and answer to Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II and Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and principal components analyses with bass-ackwards method used to investigate the hierarchical structure of the DAP-BQ. Results: Results showed that Level 5 of the hierarchy enhanced the capacity of the DAP-BQ for predicting DSM-IV PD symptoms beyond a four-factor structure, particularly for borderline PD. Conclusion: It can be concluded Level 5 represents an important level of analysis for predicting personality pathology, with an additional factor (Need for Approval) adding important information about symptoms of PD. The results from the current study may contribute to the refinement of the psychiatric nosology and assessment of personality pathology.
  1,538 108 -
Relating emotional intelligence and social competence to academic performance in high school students
Mohammad Akbaribooreng, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Asad Allah Zangouei, Masoud Ramroodi
April-June 2015, 1(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152218  
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence with academic performance of Zabol high school students in Iran. Methodology: It is a descriptive-correlational study and its statistical population consists of 9,386 high school students of Zabol of which 351 subjects were selected using Cochran's sample size determination formula and multi-stage random sampling method. Data collection instruments included both Schutt's EI questionnaire and social competence questionnaire of Illinois University. The students' first semester GPA was used as the Academic Performance indicator as well. Results: The results of data analysis showed that EI and social competence of students have a significant positive relationship with their academic performance and is able to predict their academic performance. The correlation between all the components of EI and academic performance of students was significant as well. Conclusion: Students with high EI and social competence tended to be more pro social and performed better in school. This suggests that integrating lessons with socioemotional learning in schools might improve students' performance, decrease maladaptive behavior, and increase pro social behavior. Finally, only well-designed experiments and longitudinal studies at various levels (elementary, middle and high school) will show whether EI and social competence can be learned (and at what age) and whether teaching these skills will have lasting effects.
  1,327 237 1
The relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behaviors of the staff members in the Department of Education in Isfahan city
Asghar Zamani Pozveh, Fariba Karimi
January-March 2017, 3(1):53-60
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.186520  
Aim: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the staff members in the Department of Education in Isfahan City. Methods: The study has been conducted through descriptive/correlational method. The population of this study consists of all the staff members of the Department of Education of Isfahan in the academic year 2014-2015. The population includes 517 members. Through Krejcie and Morgan sampling formula and stratified sampling method in accordance with the size, 220 members have been selected as the sample. The data have been collected using the Organizational Climate Questionnaire of Sasman and Deip and Kernodle's questionnaire of OCB. It showed that the reliability of organizational climate was 0.91, and that of OCB was 0.91. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical program package SPSS version 19. The methods of Pearson correlation, stepwise regression, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) have been used for data analysis. Results: The results of the study indicate that there is a direct and significant relationship between organizational climate, its dimensions, and OCB. Of the dimensions of organizational climate, the goals of an organization, the role, rewards, procedures, and communications within an organization are able to forecast the OCB. The results of MANOVA suggest that there is a significant difference between the respondents' viewpoints about the organizational climate according to age and OCB according to education. Conclusions: Creating positive and good organizational climate requires a culture based on common values, and employees can tolerate their work problems and their organizational citizenship behaviors are increased.
  1,418 92 -
RESEARCH ARTICLE
The role of language and memory in children reasoning
Ali Nosrat Falah, Jahanbakhsh Rhmani, Zohreh Saadatmand
January-March 2015, 1(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147447  
Aim: Reasoning is the most complex and complete function of the mind. It is also one of the important factors of humane behavior. Language is called as the most important and effective factor of controlling behavior. Memory is a systematic process, which processes and stores information. Also, it is necessary for high-level cognitive functions. This paper tries to study if language has a role in children reasoning? Also, it studies whether the memory is also effective. In order to answer these questions, the theoretical and research principles were studied. Methods: Text analysis is a qualitative research that attempts to take advantage of the resources and facts, logical reasoning methods to identify the children. Text analysis as a research method focused on the actual content. Study of children with visual analytic reasoning methods can help administrators to understand the current situation of education programs tailored to predict the future. Databases and search engines of the Internet and library databases universities in the world, book and journal accessible with logical reasoning of children and the training of 100 books and 60 articles sphere volume study The study is. Analyze and adjust the content, the method used in an analog form - is inductive. Result: The results show that except Chomsky, who believes language has an independent role; others believe that the language can control and determine the direction of reasoning and the use of language. Conclusion: In children, one of the factors of power and reasoning is problem-solving. Also, memory is related to the ability of using previous experiences and problem-solving techniques. Memory is a cognitive factor, which depends on reasoning and leads to appropriate progress in reasoning.
  1,356 153 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Social marketing, the key for dealing with social pathology especially alcohol and substance abuse
Rahele Samouei, Nahid Tavakoli, Mansoorehsadat Mirabdellahi, Alireza Jabbari
July-September 2015, 1(3):187-192
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158324  
Social marketing tries to affect the social behavior of the target audience in a way that is beneficial to the society and has wide use in international health programs such as dealing with alcohol and substance abuse. Therefore, the current study aimed to introduce a social marketing model developed for dealing with alcohol and substance abuse. This study uses review method by searching main keywords in credible scientific websites, books, research articles, scientific projects and dissertations. The main keywords included social marketing, social pathology, alcohol abuse and substance abuse, which were used separately and together. Main investigated websites included Web of Science, PubMed and Science direct websites. Afterwards the abstract and full texts of the gathered articles were investigated and unrelated articles were eliminated. The gathered data were then categorized and reported. Based on the results of this study, an effective strategy for dealing with alcohol and substance abuse needs to go through several stages, including product (including physical and virtual), cost (including the cost of methods used), place (the ways information can reach the audience), advertisement (notification methods), the availability of target audience, cooperation (by related people and organizations), political aspects (political fight against alcohol and substance abuse), public aspects (gathering humanitarian aids) and finally evaluation and implementation of the strategy. Selecting the behavior that needs to change, careful planning and cohesion of the aforementioned stages along with careful evaluation and implementation can help change undesirable behaviors and introduction of desirable ones. However, any strategy needs to change the attitude, awareness an behavior of the target audience in order to achieve the desirable results.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect role of knowledge management on organizational innovation in University of Iran
Reza Barari
April-June 2015, 1(2):87-95
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152220  
Aim: Knowledge in the age of information technology is considered as one of the main sources of achieving competitive advantage in a dynamic and competitive environment. The present aim of this study is conducted to investigate the role of knowledge management on organizational innovation among employees of the University of Mazandaran. Methods: The research method is descriptive and correlational type and clearly is based on structural equations modeling (SEM). Statistical population of this study is about 400 people from employees of the University of Mazandaran. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) knowledge management questionnaire which has four dimensions of exteriorization, combination, internalization, and socialization and Chopani (2012) organizational innovation questionnaire which has three dimensions of manufacturing, process and administrative questionnaires were distributed among 189 employees of University of Mazandaran. The reliability of knowledge management and organizational innovation questionnaires using Cronbach alpha coefficient is determined 0.945 and 0.944, respectively. Results: The research findings showed that all components of knowledge management and organizational innovation are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: By implementation of SEM to test knowledge management and organizational innovation, it is determined that the proposed model has good fitness and organizational innovation truly has been explained through knowledge management and in other words, knowledge management has positive and significant effect on organizational innovation. The managers of the organization (university) should pay attention and emphasize on the cooperation with interdisciplinary teams, entrepreneurship, and spirit of cooperation and participation.
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A study on improving physiological and psychological personalities of the students by Vethathiri Maharishi's nine-center meditation using electroencephalography
A Raj Kumar, GR Valliamma
April-June 2015, 1(2):166-170
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152247  
Aim: Nine-center meditation of simplified Kundalini yoga was formulated by sage Vethathiri Maharishi and improves the functions of endocrine glands. It involves the following centers: Mooladhara, Swadhistana, Manipuraga, Anahatha, Visuddhi, Agna, Thuriya, Shakthi Kalam and Shiva kalam. Meditation is done on all the nine-centers, seven of which are endocrine glands located within the physical body and Shakthi kalam, Shiva kalam are Universal field and absolute space respectively. Meditation commences at Mooladhara Chakra; followed by meditation on each of other chakras and concludes when the mind merges with absolute space. Mind is a magnetic wave with self-rotating movement. The speed of mind is measured in terms of mental frequency. Scientists have discovered through the use of electro encephalograph (EEG) that the mind works at frequencies ranging from 1 to 40 cycles/s. These frequencies have been classified into four. They are (1) beta wave (14-40 cps), (2) alpha wave (8-13 cps), (3) theta wave (4-7 cps), (4) delta wave (1-3 cps). Methods: To prove the research concept, forty-four students of two different schools pursuing 11 th standard were selected and chosen one as an experimental group and another one as a controlled group. The former group alone underwent and practiced the nine-center meditation for 6-month. The mind frequencies of the students of both groups were measured by EEG test in Vethathiri Maharishi's Kundalini yoga research center and their body mass index (BMI), pulse rate, blood pressure (BP) were measured by a medical officer in the center. Results: The result show that after 6-month regular practice of the nine-center meditation, the former group of students progressed well compared to the later in the following: Increase in BMI, academic marks, harmony in relation with parents, teachers, friends and decrease in pulse rate, BP and mind frequencies. The nine-center meditation regulates and promotes the functions of the endocrine glands and mind. Conclusion: That streamline and uplift physiological and psychological functions of humans especially student community very rapidly.
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Hospital information system usability of educational hospitals in Isfahan using heuristic evaluation method
Saeed Saeedbakhsh, Sakine Saghaeiannejad Isfahani, Maede Saber, Ghasem Yadegarfar
January-March 2017, 3(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.180308  
Aim : Considering positive effects of hospital information system (HIS) in patients' treatment and organization performance, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of services provided by these systems. Hence, this research was aimed to evaluate HIS usability after training evaluators based on heuristic method in Isfahan hospitals. Methods: This research is a practical, descriptive, and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in Isfahan educational hospitals in 2014. In this research, four evaluators assessed four HIS (Kosar, Rayavaran Tose, Pooya Samaneh Diva, Sayan) independently. Data collection tools were researcher-made check lists based on 10 Nielsen's components, which validity of the checklist was verified by faculty members, as well as medical informatics and hospital information technology specialists. Checklist not required to reliability but because of the proliferation evaluators of reliability with group training of evaluators that are involved in the process was provided. Then data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software (IBM Company, USA). Result: The results indicated that the total of detected problems in Kosar System, Rayavaran Tose System, Pooya Samaneh Diva System, and Sayan System were %31, %34, %24, and %24, respectively. The highest number of problems with %58 was related to users' freedom and dominating the system, and the lowest number with %16 was related to the component of match between the system and the real world. Conclusion: Despite the widespread use in the country, the design of many existing health systems has usability problems, which can affect the quality of users' interaction with the system and, therefore, caring outcome. Observing available standards and regulations in designing information system user interface like mentioned components in this research can lead to problem reduction.
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