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  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| January-March  | Volume 1 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 19, 2014

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Factors affecting physicians' behaviors in induced demand for health services
Saeed Karimi, Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Somaye Afshari
January-March 2015, 1(1):43-51
Background and Aims : One of the controversial topics in the health economy is the theory of induced demand. Physicians as experts enjoy superior knowledge and information and can use their extra knowledge for persuading patients to use unnecessary healthcare. The objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting on physicians' behavior in induced demand using the experiences of the experts in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The research is applied a qualitative method. Semi-structured interview was used for data generation. Participants in this study were people who had been informed in this regard and had to be experienced and were known as experts. Purposive sampling was done for data saturation. Seventeen people were interviewed, and criteria such as data "reliability of the information" and "stability" were considered. The anonymity of the interviewees was preserved. The data are transcribed, categorized and then used the thematic analysis. Results : In the present study, 41 sub-themes and three main themes were extracted. The three main themes included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors, and economic factors. Each of these themes had sub-themes wh ich, for example, included the authority of physicians, competition among physicians, regulative and legal affairs, ethical factors, physician's customer focus, and physicians' tendency to maximizing profits. Conclusion : The results of the present study represent a comprehensive image of the reasons effective on physicians' behaviors in occurring induced demand. The most obvious findings of this research included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors and economic factors. In the domain of structural factors; improper supervision of medical indications, expectations of physicians to activate other medical sections, physicians' independency of insurance contracts, in the domain of factors due to statuses and behaviors, physicians' authority in patients' compliance, competition among physicians, physicians' customer focus physicians' insufficient knowledge and skills, lack of commitment to ethics, and in the domain of economic factors; physician's tendency to maximizing profits, improper dependency of physicians and other health services providers are among the factors of occurring induced demand.
  6,332 718 1
Relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment by employees' productivity (structural equations modeling)
Samaneh Salimi, Narges Saeidian
January-March 2015, 1(1):10-16
Aim: The purpose of this study was determining causal relationships and modeling structural equations of relationships between quality of work life, psychological empowerment and employees' productivity of Municipal Administration of Zahedan. Methods: The method of the study is descriptive-causal - correlative. Statistical population of the study included administrative employees in municipality of center, district 1, 2, 3 of Zahedan in number of 257 people. Result: Findings of the study showed that the relationship of each variable, quality of work life and psychological empowerment, and employees' productivity and also relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment were significant (P ≥ 0.01). Discussion: Findings related to structural equations model showed that quality of work life had a direct effect on boosting employees' productivity, but its indirect effect on employees' productivity was more than its direct one which has played this role by boosting employees' psychological empowerment as an intermediate variable. Psychological empowerment also influences on employees' productivity.
  4,471 674 -
Content analysis of peace education as one component of global citizenship education in elementary textbooks
Meimanat Abedini Baltork, Sirus Mansoori, Yaser Azad
January-March 2015, 1(1):28-35
Peace education is now a required component of the national curriculum that must be taught by all schools. Hence, it is necessary that peace education components be included in school curricula. So this paper looked at peace education in content of primary textbooks. In other words, Main purpose of this survey was content analysis of primary school textbooks based on peace education components such as "Sense of solidarity," "sense of responsibility to others," "recognizing diversity," "loving others" "discrimination and denial of ethnic, racial or religious." The method of used in the content analysis is Entropy Shanon method based on quantitative content analysis. Unit of analysis is concepts (such as sentence, question, practice, and images) related to cited components in the elementary textbooks. The results showed that "Sense of solidarity" components have the most frequency and lowest frequency related to rejection of ethnic, racist and religious discriminations component.
  4,091 390 -
Learning strategies and academic success in traditional and nontraditional higher education students
Alireza Ghasemizad
January-March 2015, 1(1):7-9
Aim: This paper aimed at studying the learning strategies and effort/persistence of the traditional and nontraditional students. Method: Through cluster sampling, 245 students from four major and large Islamic Azad University branches in Iran were randomly selected, and questionnaires were distributed among them. The research method was correlation and casual-comparative. Cronbach's alpha method was used to calculate the reliability. The Item analysis and expert consensus were applied to calculate the validity of instruments. Results: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the learning strategies of these two groups of students. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the academic success of these two groups.
  3,567 344 2
Hierarchical analysis of persian version of diagnostic assessment of personality pathology-basic questionnaire and efficiency of its factors in predicting personality disorders
Mehdi Rezaee, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi, Samira Goodarzi, Hossein Shahahmadi
January-March 2015, 1(1):52-58
Objectives: Hierarchical personality models have potential efficiency to identify specific components of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) personality disorders (PDs). The purpose of this study was to investigate to factor structure of personality pathology as measured by the Diagnostic Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ), and to examine the capacity of the components of the DAP-BQ hierarchy to predict PDs symptoms. Materials and Methods: Students of Allame Tabatabii and Lorestan University (189 male, 176 female) and psychiatric outpatients of Loghman and Emam Hossein Hospitals (116 male, 159 female) were selected via convenient and voluntary sampling methods. Then completed the DAP-BQ and answer to Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II and Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis and principal components analyses with bass-ackwards method used to investigate the hierarchical structure of the DAP-BQ. Results: Results showed that Level 5 of the hierarchy enhanced the capacity of the DAP-BQ for predicting DSM-IV PD symptoms beyond a four-factor structure, particularly for borderline PD. Conclusion: It can be concluded Level 5 represents an important level of analysis for predicting personality pathology, with an additional factor (Need for Approval) adding important information about symptoms of PD. The results from the current study may contribute to the refinement of the psychiatric nosology and assessment of personality pathology.
  2,563 171 -
Need for cognition and training reaction: The mediating role of learning motivation
Farzaneh Dabbashi, Hamidreza Oreyzi, Aboulghasem Nouri, Nahid Akrami
January-March 2015, 1(1):36-42
Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of need for cognition and training reaction while considering the mediating role of learning motivation. Methods: The design of the research was correlational and Statistical population consisted total of trainees of the entrepreneurship center of the University of Isfahan. The sample was selected by applying cluster random sampling and was consisted 164 people of these trainees that were measured in tow-phases (pretraining and posttraining). Used questionnaires of the research were Cacioppo, Petty and Kao's scale of need for cognition (1984), and Noe and Wilk's learning motivation questionnaire (1993) and researcher-made training reaction. The indirect effects were tested using the Bootstrap procedure in Preacher and Hayes's macro program (2004). Results: Results demonstrated that between the need for cognition, learning motivation, training reaction and its three-dimension (reaction to training content, reaction to trainer and reaction to course plan) there are significant positive relationships. Furthermore, learning motivation mediated the relationship between need for cognition and training reaction and its dimensions, too. Discussion: With attention to the findings of this research, we recommend to responsible of training that pay specific attention to need for cognition and learning motivation, and improve these two variables in training programs.
  2,199 263 -
The role of language and memory in children reasoning
Ali Nosrat Falah, Jahanbakhsh Rhmani, Zohreh Saadatmand
January-March 2015, 1(1):1-6
Aim: Reasoning is the most complex and complete function of the mind. It is also one of the important factors of humane behavior. Language is called as the most important and effective factor of controlling behavior. Memory is a systematic process, which processes and stores information. Also, it is necessary for high-level cognitive functions. This paper tries to study if language has a role in children reasoning? Also, it studies whether the memory is also effective. In order to answer these questions, the theoretical and research principles were studied. Methods: Text analysis is a qualitative research that attempts to take advantage of the resources and facts, logical reasoning methods to identify the children. Text analysis as a research method focused on the actual content. Study of children with visual analytic reasoning methods can help administrators to understand the current situation of education programs tailored to predict the future. Databases and search engines of the Internet and library databases universities in the world, book and journal accessible with logical reasoning of children and the training of 100 books and 60 articles sphere volume study The study is. Analyze and adjust the content, the method used in an analog form - is inductive. Result: The results show that except Chomsky, who believes language has an independent role; others believe that the language can control and determine the direction of reasoning and the use of language. Conclusion: In children, one of the factors of power and reasoning is problem-solving. Also, memory is related to the ability of using previous experiences and problem-solving techniques. Memory is a cognitive factor, which depends on reasoning and leads to appropriate progress in reasoning.
  2,195 217 -
Counseling activities in schools: A mixed method
Loghman Ebrahimi, Kumars Farahbakhsh, Masumeh Esmaeili, Hossein Salimi Bejestani
January-March 2015, 1(1):59-66
Aim: Qualitative and quantitative development of counseling program in education system can be regarded as an indicator of development in education system. The present research was conducted in schools with the aim of identifying the damaging factors of counseling activities. Methodology: The study was conducted using the mix method. The research population included principals, consultants, teachers and students working and studying in the educational system of West Azarbaijan Province during the 2012/2013 educational year. The sample size was 416 respondents comprising of 46 individuals in the qualitative section who were selected based on comments saturation and 370 individuals in the quantitative section selected by use of stratified sampling method. Data were collected by use of researcher-made interview schedules, and questionnaire then analyzed using Chi-square, regression, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Z-test. Result: The findings indicated the damaging factors of counseling activities and their level of effect were identified. Discussion: Based on the identified levels of effects, the interpersonal factors showed the highest vulnerability toward counseling activities. Therefore, it was recommended that identification and classification of counseling activities' damaging factors; educational needs assessment by consultants; professional and psychological empowerment of consultants and timing of counseling activities' implementation may moderate the damaging factors and convert threats into opportunities eventually leading to achievement of the desirable status of counseling activities in schools.
  2,078 277 -
The effect of green walking on psychological wellbeing of middle-aged women in women park
Afrooz Mousavi
January-March 2015, 1(1):23-27
Background: The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological well-being. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of green walking on psychological wellbeing of middle-aged women in women park. Methods: The statistical population is 40 women of 48-59 years old, which has gone to one of the health houses of the second district of Tehran for group consultation. Among them, 30 women who had the lowest psychological wellbeing score was chosen as the original samples and were placed randomly into two groups of experimental (15) and control (15). The intervention program was the eighth session of walking in women park of Tehran. Psychological wellbeing questionnaire was implemented in both control and experimental groups, before the first session and after the last session of the hike. Results: The results of ANCOVA test analysis showed a significant difference between psychological wellbeing of experimental group and control group. Also, the study demonstrated that green walking program had positive effects on increasing the personal growth, positive relations with others, self-acceptance, and purpose in life, but it has no meaningful effect on Environmental mastery. Conclusions: Overall, the present results indicate that a green walking in the parks and green spaces because of good weather conditions, less noise and enhance social relationships can be reduces mental stress, and the middle-aged women feel mirthfulness, happiness and well-being.
  2,078 199 1
An investigation of perspectives of application of information and communication technology in teaching and learning
Maryam Mirmobin, Zohreh Saadatmand
January-March 2015, 1(1):17-22
Aim: Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to enhance access, quality and effectiveness in education. The purpose of this research was the possibilities for application of ICT in teaching and learning from the perspective of faculty members and graduate students of the Islamic Azad University of Isfahan (Khorasgan) and Meimeh. Methods: The method of the study was descriptive and a classified sampling method suitable for the population was used. The statistical sample included 271 postgraduate students. The main instrument for collecting data was the researcher-made questionnaire including 56 close-ended questions. The reliability of the questionnaire was estimated through Cronbach-α coefficient (α =0.85), and the validity was confirmed by the related experts. The results research showed that the role of input and process of the application of ICT in teaching and learning for faculty and graduate students was lower than the average level and was not considered a prospect. Result: The results individual and organizational results of the application of ICT in teaching and learning for faculty and graduate students was above the average and was considered as prospects. Conclusion: The following are the most important perspectives from views of professors and graduate students: a variety of teaching methods, research skills, increase confidence and ability, creativity, reduce training costs and improve the quality of classroom instruction.
  1,724 182 -