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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 27, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination in female nursing students
Elamurugan Sujindra, Thirthar Palanivelu Elamurugan
April-June 2015, 1(2):71-74
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152216  
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Lack of early detection leads to low survival rates in less developed countries. Breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, quick, and cost-free procedure for early detection. This study attempts to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding self-breast examination in a cohort of female nursing students. Methodology: A total of 254 female nursing students were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 21 questions (10 on knowledge, 5 on attitude, and 6 on the practice). For knowledge items, categorical responses (yes, I don't know, and no) were applied with an item score of "2," "1," "0," respectively, for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice, the answers were either yes, no or options were already specified. Results: Response rate was 94.5%. Total mean knowledge score was 14.08 ± 3.42. 87.5% accepted that early detection can improve the chance of survival. 89.2% have heard of BSE and agreed that BSE can help in early detection of breast cancer. 93.3% felt it was necessary to do BSE and 87.5% have done BSE before. 5% of nursing students felt that doing BSE was embarrassing. Only 33.3% preformed BSE regularly in a year. Conclusion: BSE functions as an effective preventive health behavior and an important component of any program for the early detection of breast cancer. Nursing students, being future health advisors, should be adequately informed about early detection methods and trained in BSE.
  4 10,715 1,019
Relating emotional intelligence and social competence to academic performance in high school students
Mohammad Akbaribooreng, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Asad Allah Zangouei, Masoud Ramroodi
April-June 2015, 1(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152218  
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence with academic performance of Zabol high school students in Iran. Methodology: It is a descriptive-correlational study and its statistical population consists of 9,386 high school students of Zabol of which 351 subjects were selected using Cochran's sample size determination formula and multi-stage random sampling method. Data collection instruments included both Schutt's EI questionnaire and social competence questionnaire of Illinois University. The students' first semester GPA was used as the Academic Performance indicator as well. Results: The results of data analysis showed that EI and social competence of students have a significant positive relationship with their academic performance and is able to predict their academic performance. The correlation between all the components of EI and academic performance of students was significant as well. Conclusion: Students with high EI and social competence tended to be more pro social and performed better in school. This suggests that integrating lessons with socioemotional learning in schools might improve students' performance, decrease maladaptive behavior, and increase pro social behavior. Finally, only well-designed experiments and longitudinal studies at various levels (elementary, middle and high school) will show whether EI and social competence can be learned (and at what age) and whether teaching these skills will have lasting effects.
  2 2,996 424
Psychometrics properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory in North of Iranian adolescents
Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi, Zoharah Omar, Seyed Mousa Kafi Masoleh
April-June 2015, 1(2):145-153
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152233  
Aim: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian Version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) for adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research examined the validity and reliability of BAI in North of Iranian normal population. After psychologists had been sufficiently prepared, they were dispatched to different regions of the Guilan (Guilan Province of Iran), referring to residential places for boys and girls in the research. At the end, 783 respondents were randomly recruited and tested using BAI. Two hundred and thirty-two respondents were randomly selected and re-tested in order to measure test-retest reliability with a 1-week interval time between first and second tests. To assess validity; we performed a principal component exploratory factor analysis to explore the factor structure of the BAI and Pearson's correlation coefficient performed for convergent validity between the BAI, self-rating anxiety scale, symptom check list-90-R, sexual abuse trauma index and divergent validity with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II. For data reduction and analysis, the SPSS 22 and Amos 18 were conducted. Result: Findings showed that the Persian version of BAI proved an acceptable test-retest reliability (r = 0.67), an internal consistency (α =0.88), convergent validity (0.40-0.44), and divergent validity (r = 0.216) with BDI-II. We found a clear cut point for our society and these findings confirmed the confirmatory factor analysis results and suggested that the factor structure for the BAI-Iranian is valid and stable. The indices were the Chi-square statistics (χ2 df =547.234), the comparative fit index =0.91), the standardized root-mean-square (0.05), the root-mean-square error of approximation (0.04), and the Akaike Information Criteria (694) a good model fit is indicated. Conclusion: The results support the applicability of BAI in adolescents and suggest the use of this inventory for screening general anxiety by school counselors and psychologists adolescents and research aims.
  2 2,287 227
The relationship between happiness, self-control and locus of control
Seyede Golafrouz Ramezani, Abbas Gholtash
April-June 2015, 1(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152222  
Aim: The aim of this study was explored the relationship between happiness, self-control, and locus of control (LOC). Methods: Research method in this survey was descriptive and correlational. A sample of 200 college students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age was studied using cluster sampling method. To collect data, a use was made of three questionnaires included the Oxford Happiness Inventory, self-control scale of Nikmanesh [1] and Rotter's LOC. Data analysis involved multiple regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study indicated that, happiness is positively and significantly related to self-control. Furthermore, self-control was the strongest predictor for happiness. Conclusion: It was also suggested that self-control is positively and significantly related to LOC.
  2 8,190 821
Social loafing among nurses and its relation with organizational justice
Manal Etemadi, Mohsen Ghaffari Darab, Elahe Khorasani, Fardin Moradi, Habibeh Vazirinasab
April-June 2015, 1(2):125-130
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152226  
Background and Aims: Social loafing refers to individuals' tendency to exert fewer efforts when they work in a group than when they work alone. Individuals who feel the injustice in an origination are likelier to tend to this phenomenon. The present study is meant to investigate social loafing and its relation with organizational justice among nurses of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive one. The population of this study included all nurses working in the Tohid Educational and Health Center in Sanandaj City. The instrument of collecting data was a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, New York, USA) and employing descriptive statistics techniques such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, and inferential ones such as Spearman, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results : On the basis of the findings of the research, among the distributive, interactional, procedural and systemic organizational justice, there is a reverse correlation between distributive component and social loafing (P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate that the mean of social loafing in females is more than that of males (P < 0.05). Further, the variable of years of experience is effective on the mean scores of individuals' loafing (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The hospital should try reduce the possibility of social loafing in order to prevent the negative effects related to loafing. One-way for attaining this aim is to highlight the importance of the job in such a way that individuals take their tasks and objectives as significant and important; further the nursing role in caring patients should be considered as outstanding.
  2 3,458 390
Can the five-factor model adequately represent the quality-of-life in cancerous patients?
Mojtaba Habibi, Pouya Zandian, Haleh Hadi Pour, Samaneh Abedini
April-June 2015, 1(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152221  
Background: Mental health provides a significant achievement for cancerous patients to alleviate prolonged suffering albeit stress would be the main part of their diseases. Aims: We intend to study the influence of personality dimensions upon cancer patients' quality-of-life (QOL). Materials and Methods: Short form of NEO Personality Inventory and QOL questionnaire were applied in both descriptive and correlational analyzing. Moreover, the sample group was included 100 patient selected purposefully. Who refer to two medical center of Tehran from April 2012 to March 2013. Participants all fillequestionnaires out. The QOL questionnaire and the short format of NEO personality inventory were used. All of the data were analyzed with Pearson coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that a significant relationship between neuroticism, agreeableness, and QOL was among the patients. Meantime, 23% of variances in quality of lives would be accounted with factors such as neuroticism, agreeableness, extroversion which could significantly predict changes in the patients' lives. Conclusion: Personality factors are an important variable for the QOL in cancer patients.
  2 2,045 191
The effect role of knowledge management on organizational innovation in University of Iran
Reza Barari
April-June 2015, 1(2):87-95
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152220  
Aim: Knowledge in the age of information technology is considered as one of the main sources of achieving competitive advantage in a dynamic and competitive environment. The present aim of this study is conducted to investigate the role of knowledge management on organizational innovation among employees of the University of Mazandaran. Methods: The research method is descriptive and correlational type and clearly is based on structural equations modeling (SEM). Statistical population of this study is about 400 people from employees of the University of Mazandaran. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) knowledge management questionnaire which has four dimensions of exteriorization, combination, internalization, and socialization and Chopani (2012) organizational innovation questionnaire which has three dimensions of manufacturing, process and administrative questionnaires were distributed among 189 employees of University of Mazandaran. The reliability of knowledge management and organizational innovation questionnaires using Cronbach alpha coefficient is determined 0.945 and 0.944, respectively. Results: The research findings showed that all components of knowledge management and organizational innovation are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: By implementation of SEM to test knowledge management and organizational innovation, it is determined that the proposed model has good fitness and organizational innovation truly has been explained through knowledge management and in other words, knowledge management has positive and significant effect on organizational innovation. The managers of the organization (university) should pay attention and emphasize on the cooperation with interdisciplinary teams, entrepreneurship, and spirit of cooperation and participation.
  1 2,631 352
Designing environmental literacy curriculum for secondary school education system in Iran: Using an integrated approach
Mahboubeh Soleimanpour Omran, Mohammad H Yarmohammadian
April-June 2015, 1(2):113-118
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152224  
Aim: This study was aimed to design environmental literacy curriculum for secondary school education system in Iran using an integrated approach. Methods: This study is a quantitative type. Theory basis, former resources, and environmental literacy component were extracted from theoretical resources and research background using a descriptive narrative overview, and then the proposed environmental literacy training framework study were classified as four elements (purpose, content, methods of teaching-learning and evaluation) that consists of three components of knowledge, skills, and attitude to the environment. Result: Data were presented to environmental experts and curriculum developers. Kolmogorov-Smirnov single group test, binomial distribution test, single group t-test, and Friedman test with SPSS software (version 20) were used for analysis purposes. Binomial distribution and t-test results (P ≤ 0.05) represent the item's importance in the views of the participants. Conclusion: The findings show that develop the four basic elements of the curriculum based on the integrated approach, based on three main components of the knowledge, skills, and attitude, facilitate environmental literacy in high school students. In this context, it can be a combination of objectives, content, teaching methods, and evaluation are applying. Environmental literacy Integrated method proposed in this research is cross disciplinarily.
  1 2,869 472
The comparision of the alexithymia in addicted and nonaddicted people in esfahan in 2013
Nafise Javani, Asghar Aghaei
April-June 2015, 1(2):161-165
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152240  
Aim: The present study was conducted to compare alexithymia in addicted and nonaddicted people in Isfahan in 2013. Methods: It had a causal-comparative research method; therefore, 58 addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers of Isfahan were selected through available method. After selecting addicted samples, nonaddicted samples (58 individuals) were chosen from the people living in Isfahan via systematic sampling. Nonaddicted samples were matched to the addicted ones according to the variables of age, gender, educational level, and lodging. The applied instruments in the current study included: The questionnaire of demographic variables and Torento's (1994) 20-item scale of alexithymia. The achieved data were analyzed through MANOVA by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that in general alexithymia (difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings (DDF), and extrovert thinking), there is a significant difference between addicted and nonaddicted groups (P < 0.05). In extrovert thinking subscale, there is a significant difference between addicted and nonaddicted groups (P < 0.05); however, there is no significant difference between the subscales of difficulty identifying feelings and DDF in addicted and nonaddicted groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The general conclusion implies that the alexithymia can be one of the effective factors in an individual's tendency to drug abuse especially in men.
  1 1,800 169
Investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher's happiness in the working environment
Fatemeh Bahri Najafi, Ebrahim Mershah Jafari
April-June 2015, 1(2):171-178
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152253  
Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher's happiness in the working environment. This was a descriptive-correlation study. Methods: The population under study was consisted of all the elementary teachers of district 2 of ministry of education and training during the academic year of 2013-2014. Using Cochrane's volume sampling, a number of 250 elementary teachers was chosen from the population of teachers (a number of 690 teachers). Two types of questionnaires were used to elicit data, the questionnaire of vision assessment (by Serajzadeh), and Oxford happiness (by Argyle). SPSS 19 was used for the both levels of descriptive (such as frequency, mean, percentage, and standard deviation) and inferential (such as Pearson correlation, multiple regression, and MANOVA) statistics. Result: The results of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between elementary teacher's happiness and their religious beliefs (r = 0.241, P < 0.001). There also existed a significant relationship between faith (one of the aspects of religious beliefs) and happiness (r = 0.01, P < 0.05). The other significant relationships of the aspects of religious belief and happiness were for the outcome aspect (r = 0.034, P < 0.005), rite aspect (r = 0.01, P < 0.05), and the experimental aspect of religious beliefs (r = 0.017, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Result showed that there is no significant relationship between the rite aspect of religious belief and happiness based on gender, working experience, educational background/level, and type of school. In contrast, there is a significant relationship between religious beliefs and age.
  1 1,908 215
CASE REPORT
Investigation of present teaching performance assessment system problems and preposition of an appropriate model by technology: Sciences classrooms
Mostafa Ghaderi, Atefe Rigi, Jamal Salimi
April-June 2015, 1(2):179-185
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152257  
Aim: This study aimed to compare teacher's' performance assessment via audio-video data with other Teaching assessment methods assessing teachers' performance is a challenge in many countries, today, assessment is considered a determinant of effective quality in education. The given importance of teachers' quality, top managers have always attended to assessing their performance in this study, Video data were investigated as a modern teaching method besides detecting present system problems in order to provide scientific evidence for a teachers' assessment method in the classroom. Methods: This case study utilized a qualitative approach. The required data were collected from videos recorded in four classrooms using semi-structured interviews. Target population included science teachers of junior high schools in Sanandaj, Iran, and eight science teachers video recording, and were selected as the a sample. Their remarks we are analyzed by inductive coding. Results: The following problems were cited by teachers as the main challenges of the present assessment method: (1) unskilled assessors (2) lack of suitable assessment criteria (3) lack of persistent assessment (4) discrimination and (5) uselessness of the results of assessment for teachers' professional development. Regarding the agreeability of video data for performance assessment, we reached two categories and subthemes: (a) the strengths of video data method: (1) cooperative assessment, (2) recruiting experts, (3) self-assessment, (4) comprehensive assessment, (5) transferability of the experience, (6) professional development of teachers, and (b) video data weaknesses: (1) artificial teaching, (2) fi increased stress (3) cost. Conclusion: Video data as a modern new way to evaluate teacher's' performance proved useful for evaluating the performance of teachers in the classroom in order to achieve the objectives of the performance Assessment system, and resolve the present problems.
  - 1,931 162
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment: A case study of female teachers
Kamal Naghipour, Hasan Galavandi, Masumeh Alizadeh, Motadaien Ebrahim
April-June 2015, 1(2):80-86
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152219  
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived organizational justice and organizational commitment of female teachers in Iran. Methodology: One hundred fourteen female teachers were randomly selected using descriptive-correlational method. For data gathering, the Colquitt's Organizational Justice Questionnaire and May-Allen's Organizational Commitment Questionnaire were used. The validity of the questionnaires was verified according to the viewpoints of experts in educational sciences and management. The reliability of the questionnaires estimated using Cronbach's α coefficient in a primary study on a 30-people sample, organizational justice questionnaire α =0.913 as well as Organizational Commitment Questionnaire α =0.924. After data gathering, they were analyzed based on research hypotheses using multivariate analysis of variance as well as multiple regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that there is a positive and significant relationship between all components of organizational justice and the aspects of organizational commitment. In addition, there is a significant predictive relationship among procedural justice, interactional justice, and distributive justice with continuous commitment and normative commitment. Conclusion: According to the theory of equity, it can be predicted that the personnel reacts toward the presence or absence of organizational justice at workplace. The increase of attachment and dependence is one of such reactions. That is, if the personnel witness that justice is not observed in the organization, they will feel some sort of tension, and therefore, they try to reduce their own dependency and commitment to the organization. In such cases, their organizational commitment may be diminished. Conversely, if they feel that organizational justice exists in the organization, they will be motivated to embrace more duties, tasks, and responsibilities so that, thereby, they would fulfill their debts to their career and consequently their organizational commitment would be increased.
  - 3,091 404
A study on improving physiological and psychological personalities of the students by Vethathiri Maharishi's nine-center meditation using electroencephalography
A Raj Kumar, GR Valliamma
April-June 2015, 1(2):166-170
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152247  
Aim: Nine-center meditation of simplified Kundalini yoga was formulated by sage Vethathiri Maharishi and improves the functions of endocrine glands. It involves the following centers: Mooladhara, Swadhistana, Manipuraga, Anahatha, Visuddhi, Agna, Thuriya, Shakthi Kalam and Shiva kalam. Meditation is done on all the nine-centers, seven of which are endocrine glands located within the physical body and Shakthi kalam, Shiva kalam are Universal field and absolute space respectively. Meditation commences at Mooladhara Chakra; followed by meditation on each of other chakras and concludes when the mind merges with absolute space. Mind is a magnetic wave with self-rotating movement. The speed of mind is measured in terms of mental frequency. Scientists have discovered through the use of electro encephalograph (EEG) that the mind works at frequencies ranging from 1 to 40 cycles/s. These frequencies have been classified into four. They are (1) beta wave (14-40 cps), (2) alpha wave (8-13 cps), (3) theta wave (4-7 cps), (4) delta wave (1-3 cps). Methods: To prove the research concept, forty-four students of two different schools pursuing 11 th standard were selected and chosen one as an experimental group and another one as a controlled group. The former group alone underwent and practiced the nine-center meditation for 6-month. The mind frequencies of the students of both groups were measured by EEG test in Vethathiri Maharishi's Kundalini yoga research center and their body mass index (BMI), pulse rate, blood pressure (BP) were measured by a medical officer in the center. Results: The result show that after 6-month regular practice of the nine-center meditation, the former group of students progressed well compared to the later in the following: Increase in BMI, academic marks, harmony in relation with parents, teachers, friends and decrease in pulse rate, BP and mind frequencies. The nine-center meditation regulates and promotes the functions of the endocrine glands and mind. Conclusion: That streamline and uplift physiological and psychological functions of humans especially student community very rapidly.
  - 2,900 210
Investigating the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse according to educators, officials, teenagers and young adults in the city of Isfahan
Rahele Samouei, Tayebe Tayebani, Ayatollah Sohrabi, Amrollah Ebrahimi, Hamid Nasiri
April-June 2015, 1(2):154-160
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152235  
Introduction: Given the current widespread nature of drug abuse worldwide, decrease in the average age of drug abuse and changing the drug abuse patterns from traditional drugs to industrial and synthetic ones and due to the negative consequences of drug abuse, investigating the subject of drug abuse has a high priority. The goal of this study is to determine the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse among teenagers and young adults. Methods: This study uses descriptive field method. Subjects included 600 individuals (300 individuals selected from among educators, managers, cultural and law enforcement officials, psychologists, social workers and consultants of government and private sectors and nongovernmental organizations in the city of Isfahan and 300 teenagers and young adults). The samples were selected using nonprobability and random sampling methods and were personally interviewed by psychology experts. The results of the interviews were categorized and coded and reported using descriptive statistics. Results: The most important stimulating factors for drug abuse in the target group are need for happiness and lack of proper recreational activities, facing problems and stress due to unemployment, mental and psychological problems and shortcomings and failures. Also, the most important factors inhibiting drug abuse are sports, proper recreational activities and being employed. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the views of both groups regarding drug abuse were similar and related to each other. Therefore, since prevention is better than cure, creating opportunities for entertainment, recreation and employment is of great importance.
  - 4,888 220
An investigation on the relationship between organizational learning and educational innovation
Mohammad Reza Nili, Ahmad Reza Nasr, Mohammad H Yarmohammadian, Setareh Mousavi
April-June 2015, 1(2):119-124
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152225  
Aim: The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between organizational learning and educational innovation. Methods: The population of this study was all faculty members in public universities of Isfahan (1,745 persons) in the academic year 2011-2012. The sample size of the study, 312, was estimated by Cochran's sample size formula, which has been selected using cluster random sampling. To collect data standard questionnaire based on theory of Gomez et al. to organizational learning and, researcher-made questionnaire of educational innovation was used, which its content validity was confirmed by supervisor and advisor as well as experts, and its reliability of questionnaire of organizational learning was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 89%, reliability of questionnaire of educational innovation was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, 92%. Results: Obtained results by Pearson correlation coefficient showed the significant relationship between organizational learning and educational innovation and its dimensions. Obtained results from multi-correlation coefficient and step by step regression showed that the best predictor of educational innovation is system thinking, transfer and integration of knowledge, openness, and experimentation. Conclusion: The effect of organizational learning in educational policies and educational programs, and revised in accordance with the conditions that caused curriculum the new education is inevitable. Requiring faculty members to observe the educational innovations in the teaching process, integrated and convergent approaches in the content of such postings education today.
  - 1,691 168
An assessment model for competency-based curriculum in vocational education and training in Iran
Mohammad Nourian, Faezeh Ghoddousi
April-June 2015, 1(2):105-112
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152223  
Aim: The complexities of current labor market have led fundamental transition in vocational education and training curricula, and it's become much significant, a competency-based point of view and simultaneous attention to technical and nontechnical competencies. To evaluate the quality of technical and nontechnical competencies used in vocational education and training curricula in Iran in order to present an assessment model was the objective of this research. Methods: The research method was a survey, and the statistical population was a group of 30 experts in authoring and editing of vocational education and training textbooks. All the samples were censured, due to a small population. The research tool was a two-part interview, containing questions about the existing situation and the desirable situation of attention to technical and nontechnical competencies in vocational education and training curricula. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze statistical data. Results: The results in technical competencies part showed that the average attention rating to tasks like: The proper way to work with tools, paying attention to all aspects of a profession and work environment health and safety is higher than average but still is far away from the desirable situation. Conclusion: The average attention rating in nontechnical competencies part to tasks like teamwork, professional ethics, new technologies, entrepreneurship, and resource management is lower than average and is too far away from the desirable situation.
  - 2,293 265
Effectiveness of problem solving Training on self concept academic high school students in holillan kahreh
Saeed VeisiKahre, Sadaf Imani, Mohammad Reza Yosef Zade, Moslem VeisiPour, Yousef Moradhaseli, Reza Kord Amiri
April-June 2015, 1(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152227  
Context: Academic self-concept, one of the factors affecting academic performance and the person's overall attitude toward their abilities in relation to school learning. Aims: The purpose of this study was to effectiveness of problem-solving training on self-concept academic high school students. Settings and Design: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and control group. Subjects and Methods: Statistical population included all first grade high school male and female students in Holilan of Ilam in the academic year 2013 to 2014, and the sampling method was multistage cluster sampling. In the pretest, questionnaire completed self-concept academic by the students and students had lower self-concept academic in the experimental two groups, and a one control group were replaced. The experimental groups received training in problem-solving method. Statistical Analysis Used: In order to analyze the data in all hypotheses, analysis of covariance, paired-samples t-test and SPSS 21 was used. Results: According to the findings, the problem-solving training causes increased self-concept academic students. Conclusions: Employing the method of solving problem increased self-concept academic students.
  - 1,724 207
Teaching strategies and developed critical thinking disposition: Intrinsic motivation, or group feedbacks?
Morteza Karami, Hamideh Pakmehr, Alireza Aghili
April-June 2015, 1(2):135-138
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152228  
Aim: With regard to the importance of inner motivation and learning interest of students in the development of intellectual skills, this study compared the effectiveness of collaborative learning model and inquiry the orientation of high school students to think critically. Methods: And quasi-experimental design of pretest and posttest. Two experimental groups and the statistics include the entire basic high school male students Fariman city per academic year 2010-2011. Result: The results showed that the pattern of influence on the orientation of the inquiry and collaborative learning and critical thinking and its three components, there are significant differences between the two groups studied and model of participatory group that received the recipient of the cooperative learning group had a higher tendency to think critically. Except in the components of engagement (P > 0.05) that there was no difference between the two groups the components of creativity (P < 0.05) and maturity (P < 0.000) groups than in the group receiving a higher level of participation in the inquiry pattern. Conclusion: Model of the impetus to inquiry the interior of the learners create, the trend toward collaborative learning to develop critical thinking, it seems more effective.
  - 1,913 193
The relationship between the use of information and communication technology and the learning level of elementary school students
Ramezan Jahanian
April-June 2015, 1(2):139-144
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152230  
Aim: The purpose of this survey descriptive research is to investigate the effect of information and communication technology (ICT) in elementary students. Methods: Our target population consists of province elementary schools' teachers, include 4677 person, and our research sample group consists of 354 people, who are randomly systematic chosen based on determining sample Morgan table. The data collection tool is research made questioner. Result: The results illustrated that there is an affirmative relationship among usage of ICT and aspects of elementary students' education such as: Facilitating teaching-learning, developing learning motivation, establishing student-oriented learning, facilitating learning measurement and evaluation and improving students' thinking skill. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that teaching with the aim of information and communication technologies enhance and improve the level of learning in students.
  - 1,634 172
REVIEW ARTICLE
Investigating and explaining language learning theories in psychology
Fatemeh Sadat Najmolhoda, Zahra Ghanbarpour, Fariba Haghani
April-June 2015, 1(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152213  
Learning is the essence of behavior understanding. Since human beings model a behavior from learning, studying the basics of it helps us in knowing the reasons behind our behaviors. Discerning learning methods supports us in comprehending normal behaviors. It allows mutual communication between humans through language. The question of how a human learns a language should be explored in the views of scientists. Results from what was said indicate that the language is a social institution with its certain functions, tasks, and properties. It also maintains that language philosophy is a branch of philosophy that describes and explains general aspects of language. Using the provided principles and rules by linguists is essential in the application of training practices. Research methods: This is review research, in which the required information is extracted from existing documents. This review study aims for, (1) investigating the major theories of language learning, including behavioral and cognitive abstractions, in detail, and (2) addressing their applications in teaching language skills.
  - 2,125 303