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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 193-198

Designed to evaluate early maladaptive schemas in normal soldiers and addicted soldiers

1 Department of Educational Science and Psychology, Faculty of Behavioral Sciences and Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Web Publication8-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Hajar Salehi
Faculty of Behavioral Sciences and Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.158325

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Aim: The present research is designed to evaluate early maladaptive schemas in normal soldiers and addicted soldiers. Methods: The study used past-reviewing comparative. The population consists of all the soldiers who were randomly selected from among 122 soldiers (62 addicted and 60 normal soldiers). General Health Questionnaire (1979) was used for measuring the general health of normal soldiers and also Young Short Questionnaire (2005) for measuring addicted soldiers schemas. The data were analyzed by SPSS16 software and difference analysis statistical method. Result: There is a significant statistical difference between the two groups in all design. The schemas of abandonment/instability, defectiveness/shame, and dependence/incompetence were more important predictors for the risk of addiction. Conclusions: The primary maladaptive schemas among soldiers addicted to opium exist with more frequency. Knowing them better is beneficial for preventing and treating the problem.

Keywords: Addictions, maladaptive schemas, soldiers

How to cite this article:
Salehi H, Ranjkesh M, Salehi Z. Designed to evaluate early maladaptive schemas in normal soldiers and addicted soldiers. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:193-8

How to cite this URL:
Salehi H, Ranjkesh M, Salehi Z. Designed to evaluate early maladaptive schemas in normal soldiers and addicted soldiers. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Jun 21];1:193-8. Available from: https://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/3/193/158325

  Introduction Top

A report by the World Healthcare Organization in 2005 declared that Iran, with %2.8 addicts, has the highest percentage of addicts to drugs around the world with. [1] Drug abuse or addiction to drugs which makes changes in mood and behavior is considered as one of the most evident social-psychological damages. [2] Epidemiology data indicate that %53 of the drug abusers have a serious psychological disease. [3],[4] For instance Yang (2003) asserted that the early maladaptive schemas might have relationship with drug abuse because it is considered that drug abuse is a compromise strategy that is probably used by the by people to avoid negative emotions that is set up by the early maladaptive schemas. [5] He believes that the early maladaptive schemas are the oldest cognitive factors, beliefs and unconditional emotions about ourselves and they are created from interaction of a child's innate moods with his/her inefficient experience with parents, sisters, brothers, and coetaneous people that affect the individual's understanding of the world, himself/herself, and others. [6] Yang et al., have described 18 early maladaptive schemas in 2003. These 18 schemas can be classified into five separate areas including separation and rejection (lack of pleasing the security needs and sympathy by predictable methods), the area of autonomy and deranged operation (the families which decrease the child's self-confidence and make the independent operation of the child to be failed), the area of deranged limitations (lack of responsibility and consequently, problems in relation to observing others' rights, obligations and goal-settings), the area of directedness (excessive attention to others and ignoring needs of oneself), and excessive alertness and inhibition (which is the result of excessive emphasis on repressing the emotions). [7],[8] Rezaie Heydaripoor and Ghadami indicated that the addicted people have early maladaptive schemas, and they feel that others mistrust and misbehave them or leave them alone. [9] The results of Shary Anderson and Start indicated that the scores of the schemas in women and men addicted to drugs are significantly higher than the nonaddicted women and men. [10] On the other hand, statistics shows that during the last three decades, the average age of beginning addiction to narcotics has been reduced. [11] Among the populated places which are exposed by danger for young people are military environments. [12] Entering the military environments during teenage years and the fifth psychological growth is considered to be a very sensitive period of life of young and efficient workforce in every country. In military organization, this period is in company with cognitive, behavioral, organizational, cultural, ethnic, and tribal changes. Therefore, being involved in such kinds of conditions, because of providing stress and anxiety, affect the person's operations because this person needs to learn how to perform hard, rough, as well as affecting intimacy and emotion roles and what positions should be taken regarding his/her own obligations and relationships. Encountering these roles and also hard and continuous trainings, various missions, learning adventurous expertise and since the effective factors are very complicated in creation of schemas including childhood experiences, people around the patients, mood, and also choosing the conflict style which is chosen by the patients during life, and also because of precise knowledge of the schemas in healthcare schemas that demands its own particular and recognized healthcare intervention. [13] Although based upon the previous studies, there are relations between primary maladaptive schemas with a tendency toward drugs, a study which analyzes this relation among the Iranian soldiers was not found. According to importance of the above-mentioned cases, this study was conducted with the main purpose of comparison of primary maladaptive schemas among the soldiers addicted to opium and normal soldiers in order to determine the prevalent maladaptive schemas among the addicted soldiers.

  Methods Top

The present study is retrospective causative-comparative with available purposeful sampling among the soldiers of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The population includes all of the soldiers of Isfahan city. 62 addicted soldiers who had referred to healthcare center of clinic-based units of the armed forces in Isfahan to be cared were chosen. In order to confirm their addiction, morphine test was used and also, for comparison, 60 soldiers were selected among those ones who were recognized to be healthy based on General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and they were not addicted to drugs. Both of the groups were peered in terms of age, education, and marriage status. This study was lasted for 6 months from August 2011 to February 2012.

Questionnaire and instruments

  • Form of demographic features: The questionnaire included information such as age, education level, type of drug abuse, and marriage status
  • General Health Questionnaire: To evaluate psychological health, (GHQ, 1979) made by Goldberg and Hiller in order to diagnose weak psychological disorders was used. This questionnaire has 28 items and four ancillary scales including physical signs, anxiety, disorder in social functions, and depression that each subscale has seven questions and scored with a 4° Likert scale from 0 to 3. [14] Validity and reliability of this instrument have been evaluated appropriate both in studies conducted in Iran and abroad. [15] In this study, the internal consistency coefficient (Cronobach alpha) was 0.94
  • Young Short Questionnaire (YSQ) of primary maladaptive schemas: YSQ of primary maladaptive schemas version 3 (YSQ, 2005) was used which was made by Young for measuring 18 maladaptive schemas. This questionnaire has 90 items (five major scales and 18 subscales) which is scored with a 6° Likert scale. Validity and reliability of this questionnaire were appropriate. [14] In this one, the internal consistency coefficient of 0.96 was achieved, too. Finally, after collecting the questionnaires, the raw data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 16.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Company) and discriminant analysis method.

  Result Top

The descriptive results indicated that the range of soldiers' age was from 18 to 25 with a mean of 20.63 and standard deviation of 04.2. Education levels were elementary to associate degree in that 14% had elementary educations, 69% had diploma, and 16% of them had an associate degree. Regarding marriage status, 11% were married and 88% bachelor.

[Table 1] shows mean and standard deviation of 18 primary maladaptive schemas and five areas of schemas of both groups.
Table 1: Mean and SD of 18 schemas and their 5 areas in two groups of addicted and nonaddicted people

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Initially, the hypothesis of equality of the two vectors including 18 schemas and their areas in both groups were tested that this hypothesis was rejected in the level of 0.05 (P < 0.00). Therefore, there is a significant difference between explaining variables in both groups.

[Table 2] shows the mean of each explanative variable is significant in both groups, therefore, each one of them can be potentially effective in discriminating two communities of addicted and nonaddicted ones from each other.
Table 2: Hypothesis test of equality mean for each one of 18 schemas and their 5 areas in two groups of addicted and nonaddicted people

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Structure matrix shows correlation coefficients between the explanative variable and amount of discriminate function. The high amount of this table is due to more effect of the variable on discriminate analysis result.

[Table 3] indicates that cut/rejection defectiveness/shame, dependency, incompetency, and emotional deprivation variables enjoy the most potentiality to recognize addicted people.
Table 3: Standardized coefficients of the discriminant function at the level of the schemas and their 5 areas

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  Discussion Top

The purpose of this study was a comparison of the primary maladaptive schemas among the soldiers addicted to opium and normal soldiers to determine prevalent primary maladaptive schemas. As it can be observed in [Table 1], there is a significant difference between explaining variables in both groups. This is a good sign that this collection of variables can be used for recognition of addicted people from nonaddicted ones. In the followings, each one of these variables will be analyzed and at the end, a model for discrimination of these two communities from each other based upon the collected evidences is achieved. In addition, the analysis of the table related to testing of equality of the means in both groups is shown in [Table 2]. If difference score of one variable is significant and another one is not significant, the effect of the first variable will be more than the second one that is an obvious phenomenon. Furthermore, comparison of F and Wilks' Lambda statistic will be helpful in comparison of the amount of this work. The lower amount of this statistic indicates that the mentioned variable has more potentiality for discrimination of both communities from each other well as standardized coefficients of discriminate function and structure matrix. [Table 3] indicates that cut/rejection defectiveness/shame, dependency, incompetency, and emotional deprivation variables enjoy the most potentiality to recognize addicted people. This result is in line with the evaluation of Wilks' Lambda statistic in the table of equality test of mean scores. Furthermore, as it can be observed in [Table 3] that cut and rejection have the highest role in recognizing the addicted people from nonaddicted ones. This result is in line with the evaluation of Wilks' Lambda statistic in the table of equality test of mean scores.

Finally, the achieved results of discriminations' analysis show that abandonment/instability, defectiveness/shame, dependency/incompetency, and generally the schemas in the areas of cuts/rejections, impairing limitation have a rather more importance in predicting addiction of soldiers. These results are in line with those of the studies conducted by Soltaninejad, [16] Zargar, [17] Iranpoor, [18] and Bler [19] that indicates the addicted soldiers have more psychological and personal problems than normal ones. In Soltaninejad's study which was conducted on comparison of addicted and nonaddicted schemas of Kerman city and the difference between two groups was significant in all schemas and emotional deprivation schema, self-involvement and vulnerability to loss and illness, have the most power of predicting addiction factors. According to Zargar, the highest amount of Eta is related to schemas of abandonment, instability, distrust, misbehavior, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, shame, dependency, and incompetency and in the area of schema it is related to cuts, rejection, and impairing limitations. According to Iranipoor, the highest difference between two groups was determined by abandonment and instability areas. In his study about teenagers dependent to drugs, Beler believes that schemas of dependency/incompetency, abandonment/instability and unchanged involvement of self have the highest Eta coefficient between two groups. To illustrate the above results, we can say that some of the schemas especially those which are mainly formed due to unpleasant childhood experiences might be counted as the main core of chronic signs of disorders of axis I and II such as social anxiety, [20] depression, [21] drug abuse, [22] borderline personality disorders, [23] and eating disorders. [24] In general, the primary maladaptive schemas are related to disorders of axis I and II such as anxiety, depression, and personality disorders that both of these disorders are existed among the people addicted to drugs. [25] The results of the present study indicate that the patients whose schemas are within the areas of cuts, rejection and impairing limitations have a highest risk of addiction. Young believes that the patients whose schemas are in the first area have the most vulnerability. Many of them have had a shocking childhood, and they tended to seek a relationship of self-damaging or they avoid creating close interpersonal relationships with other people. [13] The patients whose schemas are within impairing limitation, their internal limitation about mutual respect and self-restraint has not been grown enough. Similar results to these ones could be seen in other studies which show that people who are weak in social skills and are not capable enough to make relationship with others [26] and also those who have weak self-esteem, that is, are not capable to adapt and control the shocks, [27] it is more probable to be inclined to drug abuse and addiction to narcotics. [28],[29] Lack of the soldiers' trust to confidentiality of the information was among the limitations of this study that it was attempted to control it by giving them enough confidence. Furthermore, the schemas of the addicted soldiers after a period of time and its comparison with the time in which they were addicted were not investigated, and it is suggested to be investigated in future studies.

  Conclusion Top

According to what has been mentioned in the introduction section, the early maladaptive schemas are emerged in different forms in forming the personality disorders. The study indicated that there is a significant difference between the addicted and nonaddicted soldiers regarding abandonment/instability, defectiveness/shame, and dependence/incompetence schemas. Therefore, the schemas can be used to prevent and cure addiction to drugs and their associations in a more efficient way. According to the great deal of studies which have been conducted during recent years, the findings clearly show that the medical schema which is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy has had a considerable efficiency in solving the addiction problems and its following inabilities.

  Suggestion Top

In order to evaluate the study's variables, pencil-paper questionnaires and according to the limitations of the instruments like questionnaire in analyzing the behavioral subjects precisely, the present study has had some limitations. Furthermore, it should be mentioned that the study was conducted on the soldiers in Isfahan; therefore, generalizing the results to other groups should be done cautiously.

  Acknowledgment Top

The present study was conducted by the cooperation of the staff in the psychiatry ward of the Armed Forces Hospital of Isfahan. Therefore, we would like to thank the respected authorities of the center and all of the venerable colleagues who helped us in this study.

  References Top

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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