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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 234-237

Effect of yoga module on low back pain in information technology professionals


Department of Yoga and Management Studies, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhäna Samsthana University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication2-Sep-2016

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sony Kumari
Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhäna Samsthana University, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.189663

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  Abstract 

Introduction: The prevalence of back pain is on the rise. “ Throughout the medical profession, we are finding a shocking increase in both the frequency and severity of back problems,” writes Alfred O. Bonati, MD, Director of Orthopedic Center Institute and Shirley Linde, Ph.D., in their No more back pain (Pharos, 1991). A modern computer professional is a typical example of back pain. He has all three problems such as sedentary life, wrong posture and the pressure of targets. All these lead to chronic back pain. Design: Two group pre-post design is used. On first day, before giving the yoga module, Pre STAI(X1), Pre STAI(X2) and Pre BDI is measured. After giving yoga module for 10 days, Post STAI(X1), X2 and BDI is measured. Result: The data was not normally distributed hence we are using non parametric test Wilcoxon test within group and Mann Whitney test between groups. The results show that there was significant change in STAI(X1) and BDI variables between groups and no significant change in STAI(X2). Conclusion: The present study has shown significant result in STAI(X1) and BDI when compared with previous studies. There was 80% decrease in backpain using RMDI based on collective feedback report. With this, we can conclude that yoga module was effective in reducing chronic low back pain, anxiety and depression levels.

Keywords: Back depression inventory, chronic low back pain, information technology professionals, state-trait anxiety inventory, yoga


How to cite this article:
Sunil P, Kumari S. Effect of yoga module on low back pain in information technology professionals. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2016;2:234-7

How to cite this URL:
Sunil P, Kumari S. Effect of yoga module on low back pain in information technology professionals. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Oct 30];2:234-7. Available from: https://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2016/2/4/234/189663


  Introduction Top


”Anyone who lives an average life span without suffering from backache belongs to a privileged minority,” says Hamilton Hall, an orthopedic surgeon in his book “The back doctor.”[1] Eighty percent of us suffer from some form of back pain in our lifetime. Recent studies and surveys report that approximately half of us who are of working age will suffer from backache in the coming year, and on any given day, whooping 6.5 million people are too incapacitated by back pain is now the number-one reason people see their primary care doctors, and other research shows that it is now second only to the common cold at causing us to miss work.[2] The prevalence of back pain in on raise.[3] It has an overall prevalence of 60–80% in industrialized countries.[4]

A modern computer professional is a typical example of back pain. He has all three problems such as sedentary life, wrong posture, and the pressure of targets. The rapid pace of life demands long hours of work. A young, energetic, enthusiastic engineer in his twenties who is attracted by the big money that his job offer enters the company, he pushes himself into long working hours ignoring his sleep, food, and entertainment leaving alone his emotional needs. He starts feeling oppressed and suppressed by the seniors. The suppressed reactions along with the speed of competitiveness persist as uncontrollable speed in the manomaya kosha. Not well trained in handling this speed he drains out his energies just to manage the demands of the situation. This results in increased irritability, frustration, indecisiveness, etc. Over the next few months or years, he starts getting low back pains which may pass off with rest in bed for a few days. However, this may come back and lead to chronic back pain.[5]

He experiences physical and mental tension because of the continual effort to deal with the pressures of work and with the demands that are made upon him.[6] To have a physical, emotional, and mental balance, it is important to harness our will power and aim at the growth of right side of the brain. This balance is only possible through yoga. Yoga, far from being a mere physical or breathing acrobatics, is a science of future with a holistic vision relevant to a progressive society. Yoga is a conscious process helping us to rise from our animal instincts to a level of normal discrimination.[5]

Four main streams of yoga techniques could be identified. They utilize the four major faculties in man – intellect, emotion, will-power, and the executive capacities through the sensory and motor apparatus. They are called Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Raja Yoga, and Karma Yoga, respectively. The path of wisdom – Jnana Yoga uses the intellect. In this path of study, the most basic questions, regarding reality, goal of life, happiness and misery, life beyond death, etc., are posed. The techniques in Bhakti yoga, the science of emotions culture, are becoming more relevant in the modern era. This yoga harnesses the inherent qualities of the right side of the brain. Bhakti yoga teaches the art of invoking the emotions, intensifying them, and diffusing them at will. It also helps us to gain control over our emotions and thus leads us to a life full of love, harmony, and bliss. Harnessing the “will” and the capacity to do, undo or do it in a different way is the technique of Raja Yoga. In karma yoga, we learn the art of “working in relaxation” with total “Awareness in action.” The regular release of stress and tension helps to spread that insight throughout the action phase. Applications of karma yoga techniques help to reduce the accumulation of tension and stress and thus make the possibility of a tension-free life, a reality.

The concept of Pancha kosha is described in Taittiriya Upanishad. There are five koshas namely Annamaya kosha, Pranayama kosha, Vijnanamaya kosha, Manomaya kosha, and Anandamaya kosha. The disturbances in the manomaya kosha percolate into the physical layer (Annamaya kosha) through the Pranamaya kosha. Hence, in the treatment of psychosomatic ailments, it becomes mandatory to work at all these levels of our existence to bring about the quickest results.[5]

Yoga module is developed by S-Vyasa works. It consists of yogasanas that helps to mobilize and activate particularly affected parts of the body and strengthen the spine as well as muscles. By practices of pranayama, greater control over the vital life force is achieved. Bad and poor health is due to the imbalance in prana. Hence, when this prana is regulated, the body is resolved back to its healthy condition. Yoga meditation is the very process of recovering and retrieving our psychophysiological and psychological intervention that, otherwise, almost always remains under constant demand from our psychophysiological, social, and bioecological phenomena.[5]


  Methods Top


A study was conducted by Dr. Padmini Tekur titled “Effect of Yoga Therapy on chronic low back pain (CLBP) – A randomized control study.” The design was crossover randomized control study in a residential health center in Bangalore, South India. The sample size taken was eighty, out of which forty were in control group and other forty were in experimental group. The control group was given physical exercises whereas experimental group were administered with yoga practices with an intervention of 2 weeks intensive residential program. Results suggested that there is a significant reduction in Oswestry Disability Index scores in the yoga group compared to control group (P = 0.01, effect size = 1.06). The spinal flexibility measures improved significantly in both the groups but yoga group showed significant improvement as compared to control (P = 0.01, effect size = 1.26). There was a better reduction (P = 0.001, repeated measures n ANOVA) in pain in yoga (P = 0.01, effect size 1.26) than control group on Pain Analog Scale (PAS).[7]

Another study titled conducted by Bhatta, Jalandhar titled “Effect of IAYT on Back pain as measured by Rolland Morris Disability Index,” State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) 1 and STAI 2 revealed that there was 40.10%, 38.82% decrease in STAI and STA2 score (P < 0.001) after the practice of integrated approach to yoga therapy for 7 days. In trait anxiety tests, subjects are asked to indicate how they felt “most of the time” during the preceding week, i.e., before they came for the intervention on the 1st day and on the 7th day after the yoga practice. And in back depression inventory (BDI) there was 69.90% decrease in BDI score (P < 0.001).[8]

The role of add-on yogic relaxation technique to standard physiotherapy in the management of acute low back pain was studied by Anuprita with a sample size of 60 patients undergoing traction therapy for CLBP for 10 days in a Physiotherapy Department of an Orthopedic Hospital were randomized into yoga and control groups. The yoga group had mind sound resonance technique for 10 days through prerecorded audio instructions that was heard by the patient through a headphone while undergoing traction treatment. The control group had nonguided supine rest. Results showed significant improvement in forward bending, back bending, sit and reach and PAS. Autonomic means including systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were found significant improvement.[9]

Design of study

The sample size was 46, both men and women, age range was between 24 and 50 included. All were information technology professionals working in different companies residing in Pashan-sus road area, Pune. Age group was 24–50 years. Total sample size (n = 46) was conveniently divided into two groups, yoga group (n = 23) and control group (n = 23).

Measure

The data are being measured by using 24-point BDI, STAI (X1 and X2). This 21-item inventory was devised by Beck et al. (1961) that measures cognitive, affective and vegetative symptoms of depression. It assesses the severity of both symptoms and attitudes specific to depressed individuals. The score of each item ranges from 0 to 3, and the range of total score is 0–63.

STAI developed by Spiel Berger et al., (1970)[10] consists of X1 and X2 each comprising on 20-items rated on a4 point scale. Form X1 assess state anxiety defined as “transitory emotional state that varies in intensity, fluctuates over time and is characterized by feelings of tension and apprehension and by heightened activity of the autonomic nervous system (Spielberg, 1970). It evaluates how the respondent feels right now at this moment. Form X2 evaluates trait anxiety, which is a relatively stable individual predisposition to respond to situations perceived as threatening (Spielberg, 1970).

Procedure

Two groups such as pre- and post-design were used for the study. BDI, STAI (X1), STAI (X2) were used to measure the depression and anxiety levels in information technology professionals. The data were collected on the 1st day and on the 10th day for both yoga and control group. The intervention was given for 10 days consisting of asanas, pranayamas, meditation, and relaxation techniques for 1 h. The control group did not receive any intervention during 10 days and continued with normal daily routine work.


  Results Top


[Table 1] represents the Mean, SD, percentage change and P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI of Yoga group. To see the within group pre and post changes in STAI 1, nonparametric test Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used and result shows there is significant change 0.038 (P< 0.05). In STAI 2, there was no significant change 0.676 (P > 0.05) and in BDI, result shows the change is significant 0.002 (P< 0.01). The mean value of STAI 1 has decreased from 50.18 to 35.10 (42.96%) change, whereas in STAI 2, it is increased from 47 to 47.36 (0.76%) change. BDI mean value is significantly decreased from 9.54 to 2.5 (73.79%) change.
Table 1: Represents the Mean, SD, percentage change and P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI of Yoga group

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[Table 2] represents the Mean, SD, percentage change and P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI of Control group Variables. To see the within group pre and post changes in STAI 1, nonparametric test Wilcoxen Signed Test was used and result shows there is no significant change 0.271 (P > 0.05). In STAI 2, there was no significant change 0.729 (P > 0.05) and in BDI also, results show the change is not significant 0.713 (P > 0.05). The mean value of STAI 1 has decreased from 47.46 to 47.19 (0.56%) change whereas in STAI 2, it is decreased from 45 to 45.73 (0.23%) change. BDI mean value is decreased from 9.80 to 9.73 (0.71%) change.
Table 2: Represents the Mean, SD, percentage change and P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI of Control group

Click here to view


[Table 3] represents the between group P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI. To see the between group pre and post changes in STAI 1, nonparametric test – Mann–Whitney Test was used and result shows there is significant change 0.007 (P< 0.05). In STAI 2, there was no significant change, i.e. 0.345 (P > 0.05) and in BDI, the result shows the change is highly significant 0.000 (P< 0.01).
Table 3: Represents the between group P value of STAI1, STAI2 and BDI

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The current study was done for 10 days to assess the effect of yoga module on low back pain in information technology professionals. The data were not normally distributed using Wilcoxon Signed Test within the group and Mann–Whitney test between group. When STAI 1 and BDI scores of the previous study and this study was compared, the percentage of decrease is more in this study compared to the previous study. The percentage of decrease in STAI 1 and BDI is 40.10%, 69.90, respectively, in previous study, whereas in our study, it is 42.96% and 73.79%. Based on the collective feedback report, there was 80% decrease in CLBP using Roland-Morris Disability Index scores.

The above two studies has been done in a residential setup, whereas the present study was done in a nonresidential set up among information technology people. Based on the BDI and STAI1 result, we can assume that if we had larger sample with extended intervention, we can expect to get good results in STAI 2 in terms of other studies in same area.


  Conclusion Top


The current study was done for 10 days with yoga module on sample size of 23 to assess the effect of yoga on chronic low back pain in IT professionals. When STAI(X1) and BDI scores of previous study and this study are compared, the percentage of decrease is more in this study. Hence, we conclude that yoga module was effective in reducing chronic low back pain, anxiety and depression levels.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
McClelland & Stewart. The Back Doctor. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart; 1987.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Inlander BC, Shimer P. Backache 51 Ways to Relieve the Pain. New York: Walker Publishing Company, Inc.; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Bonati AO, Linde S. No More Back Pain. New York: St. Martins Publishers; 1991.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Borenstein DG. Epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of low back pain. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2001;13:128-34.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nagaratna R, Nagendra HR. Yoga for Back Pain. Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana publishers; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Julie Friedberger. Office Yoga Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas Publishers; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Tekur P, Chametcha S, Hongasandra RN, Raghuram N. Effect of yoga on quality of life of CLBP patients: A randomized control study. Int J Yoga 2010;3:10-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
8.
Bhatta, Jalandhar. Effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy on back pain as measured by Rolland Morris Disability Index. Bangalore: SVYASA Publishers; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Bali Yogita, R Nagaratna, Ebnezer John, H R Nagendra. The role of add-on yogic relaxation technique to standard physiotherapy in management of acute low back pain. Bangalore: SVYASA Publishers; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Spiel Berger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene RE. Manual for the Strait Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting psychologists press; 1970  Back to cited text no. 10
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


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