|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 78-83
Relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction with resilience and marital satisfaction in teachers
Ali Mohammad Naemi
Department of Educational Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
|Date of Web Publication||24-Jul-2018|
Dr. Ali Mohammad Naemi
Department of Educational Sciences, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzevar
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction with resilience and marital satisfaction in Sabzevar (Iran) teachers in 2014.
METHODS: Method of this research was descriptive and correlative. Population of this study was female teachers of schools (secondary-high school) that are totally 324 individuals. A total of 174 individuals were selected as case studies among population, using accessible sampling method and with the help of Cochran's formula. Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale for Adults, marital satisfaction scale (ENRICH 47-point) and basic psychological need scale were used to collect data.
RESULTS: The results showed that all variables (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) have a significant positive correlation with resilience and marital satisfaction. Relatedness and autonomy had the most significantly and positively predicts respect to resilience and marital satisfaction, respectively.
CONCLUSION: According to the results, it can be said that the basic psychological needs satisfaction can be beneficial in term of increasing the resilience and marital satisfaction, it also improve their performance and mental health.
Keywords: Autonomy, basic psychological need, competence, marital satisfaction, relatedness, resilience
|How to cite this article:|
Naemi AM. Relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction with resilience and marital satisfaction in teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2018;4:78-83
|How to cite this URL:|
Naemi AM. Relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction with resilience and marital satisfaction in teachers. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Jul 31];4:78-83. Available from: https://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2018/4/2/78/237298
| Introduction|| |
Many school teachers suffer from stress and burnout, and perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been associated with increased stress, maladaptive coping, and burnout. Perceived pressure to be perfect showed differential relationships depending on the source of pressure: whereas pressure from students was positively related to loss appraisals and pressure from students' parents was positively related to burnout, pressure from colleagues was inversely related to threat appraisals and burnout. Skaalvik and Skaalvik found strong support for six separate but correlated dimensions of teacher self-efficacy, which were included in the following subscales: instruction, adapting education to individual students' needs, motivating students, keeping discipline, cooperating with colleagues and parents, and coping with changes and challenges. One of the factors that can help teachers to cope with these pressures and improve self-efficacy is resilience.
Resilience is a psychological construct compromising characteristics that aid an individual in adjusting favorably in the face of adverse life events. Often times, resilience is the capacity of individuals to overcome and adapt to adversity to cultivate strength, in spite of adversity or stress. Resilience encompasses notions of competence, perseverance, hope, optimism, and flexibility. The past research reveals that individuals who are high in resilience often display lower rates of psychological distress when exposed to a variety of stressors. Specific studies exploring resilience have provided support for its potential to buffer the effects of acute stressors. An individual or family that is resilient is assumed to be in good mental health because they have made it through an adverse life event unscathed. In maintaining and promoting mental health, resilience is seen as one of the most important elements in regards to individual's strength to overcome and adapt in a healthy way. Therefore, by increasing resilience in teachers; it is possible to prevent damages which have threatened them. Another factor that can help teachers is marital satisfaction.
Marital satisfaction is a state of mind and multidimensional concept that includes different factors such as personality features, financial matters, child rearing styles, and sexual relations. As Hakins said, quoted from Ahuyi, marital satisfaction is defined as a blooming mental emotion of mutual satisfaction and experienced enjoyment. Satisfaction can be both evanescent and stable through time. In other words, life-satisfaction is the degree which a person positively evaluates the overall quality of his/her life as-a-whole. One pertinent research question in positive psychology is the identification of variables that enable a fulfilling, meaningful, and happy life. Studies showed that life satisfaction is particularly related to the five factor's curiosity, zest, love, gratitude, and hope. The purpose of marriage is satisfying the needs of the parties, and if it does not meet their needs, stress, frustration, and anger appear. These wants and needs may exist in several domains of life, for example, when individuals take the role of employee, parent, spouse, or friend. Marital satisfaction has many benefits, and one of its major benefits is that people feel good about themselves and their lives, which has an impact on their overall well-being. Satisfied people tend to be happier and treat others better. They are more likely to deal with problems and issues of work life productively and effectively. Life satisfaction is usually seen as a global measure of an individual's assessment of the overall quality of life. Studies show that people who are married are healthier, and in marriage, love your people are spread over time. The researchers showed that marital satisfaction is predictive of depression and perceived social support. Furthermore, other studies considered the broader effects of happiness on life events, including income, marriage, employment, and health. According to results of researches, it can be said that basic psychological needs increase the resilience and marital satisfaction. Ryan and Deci based on self-determination theory believe that satisfaction of basic psychological needs is essential for individual well-being and life satisfaction of individuals. Self-determination theory consider factors that prevent or facilitate self-actualization. Basic psychological needs are the basis of this theory that provide the necessary energy for active involvement with environment, skill development, and improvement mental health. These needs are naturally and necessary for self-regulation and well-being. These needs are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
The need for autonomy can be defined as when a person take into consideration one's own intrinsic processes, have the ability of acting independently and self-approval while deciding. Autonomy is also to exhibit strong-willed behaviors and show self-approval. This need is met by leading and controlling one's own life and making one's own choices. These people generally approve their behaviors and accept the consequences of one's actions. The autonomy may predict such states as resistance, aggressive attitudes, and anger under heavy pressure. The relatedness refers to relating meaningfully and closely to significant others in activities and processes and connecting to the selves of other people., The need for competence refers to feeling good at doing something, or at least feel one can become good in the activity. Competence also refers to the feeling of master one's environment and different social contexts, experience efficiency, enhanced well-being, achieve, and control desired outcomes. Studies have shown a positive relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and well-being within various contexts, including family and friends,, mental health, life satisfaction, education , and employees' optimal functioning and intrinsic motivation. Research showed that marital satisfaction, in particular, resilience skill, has been widely studied but there is no study that directly studied the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction with teachers' resilience and marital satisfaction. According to the important role of teachers in development and personality of the students, it seems that research in this field is necessary to achieve practical solutions. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between basic psychological needs satisfaction and resilience and marital satisfaction of teachers.
| Methods|| |
This research is descriptive and correlative study. Population included all teachers in the high-schools (second period) in Sabzevar (Iran) that are totally 324 individuals in 2014. The sampling method in this study was a random clustering. In this case, eight schools (four schools were selected randomly out of high-schools (four girls' schools and four boys' schools). There were 181 married high school teachers that were selected as samples. Next, questionnaires of basic psychological need, resiliency and marital satisfaction were given to the teachers and the way of completing the questionnaires was explained. Seven teachers of sample set were ignored because of the incompleteness of their questionnaires and 174 of them were selected as the final sample set. This sample size was adequate according to the Cochran's formula. Then, the completed questionnaires were collected and analyzed.
The instruments which were used in the study were as follows:
Basic psychological need scale
This scale was developed by La Guardia et al. and adapted to Iran by Ghorbani and Watson. It composed of 21 items used to assess three subscales, namely, autonomy satisfaction (seven items), competence satisfaction (six items), and relatedness satisfaction (eight items). Responses were measured on 7-point Likert scale, ranged from (7) = very true to (1) = not true at all. This scale does not have a cutoff point, and high score indicates psychological need satisfaction among participants. The validity of this scale on Iranian managers and students are between 0.76 and 0.79 have been reported. In the current study, these coefficients were (0.75), (0.77), and (0.73), respectively.
Connor and Davidson resilience scale
Resilience scale was developed by Connor and Davidson  that has 25 items instrument (never, rarely, sometimes, often, and always) which measures resilience construct in 5 points in Likert scale from 0 to 4. Minimums resilience score is zero and its maximum is 100. This scale had adjusted for using in Iran and has obtained Cronbach's alpha as 0.89. Reliability was measured by correlation method between 0.41 and 0.644. In this study, Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 and reliability was 0.84.
Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire
This questionnaire was developed by Fowers and Olson (1989) and adapted to Iran. The scale consists of 47 items that are used in the context of a comprehensive study on marital satisfaction, and 5-point Likert-types. Fowers and Olson (1989) validated 47-question form above using alpha 0.92 and In Iran using alpha 0.95 reported. Score <30, 30–40, 40–60, 60–70, and more than 70 indicates severe dissatisfaction, dissatisfaction, moderate satisfaction, high satisfaction, and extreme marital satisfaction, respectively.
Finally, for the purpose of the study, to examine the relationships between resilience and marital satisfaction with basic psychological needs, Pearson correlation and multiple regression (resilience and marital satisfaction were treated as a criterion variable, and satisfaction of psychological needs was treated as a predictor variable) analysis were used. The study also includes the descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviations. A statistical significance level in this study was P < 0.05 and data were analyzed with correlation and regression analysis by means of SPSS Inc. Released 2009. PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
| Results|| |
In the results section, descriptive statistics of variables are first demonstrated. After that, correlational values between variables, and finally, multiple regression analysis results are shown.
[Table 1] shows the means and standard deviations of resilience, marital satisfaction, and basic psychological need satisfaction with its components including sub-dimensions which are autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
It was found that there are positive significant relationships between resilience and marital satisfaction with basic psychological need satisfaction (P < 0.01) and its sub-dimensions which are autonomy, relatedness, and competence [Table 2]. Similarly, there is a positive significant relationship between total scores of basic psychological needs and its sub-dimensions; autonomy, competence, relatedness (P < 0.01). Furthermore, there are positive significant relationships between each sub-dimension of basic psychological need satisfaction (autonomy-competence, autonomy-relatedness, and relatedness-competence). Correlation coefficients of research variables are presented in detail [Table 2].
|Table 2: Correlation coefficients of marital satisfaction and basic psychological need satisfaction|
Click here to view
Findings of multiple regression analysis conducted to assess how basic psychological need satisfaction and its sub-dimensions, autonomy, competence, and relatedness predict resilience; [Table 3]. According to the findings, basic psychological need satisfaction and its sub-dimensions significantly predict resilience of teachers (R = 0.42, R2 = 0.18, F = 21.37, P < 0.001). When the relationships between predictor variables (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and predicted variable resilience are examined one by one, it was found that the relatedness most significantly and positively predicts resilience (β =0.46; P < 0.001). Following the competence (β = 0.35; P < 0.001), and the autonomy (β = 0.31; P < 0.001) predict resilience significantly in a positive way, respectively. According to the analysis results, all predictor variables accounted 18% of the total variance of resilience.
Findings of multiple regression analysis conducted to assess how basic psychological need satisfaction and its sub-dimensions autonomy, competence, and relatedness predict marital satisfaction [Table 4]. According to the findings, basic psychological need satisfaction and its sub-dimensions significantly predict marital satisfaction of teachers (R = 0.58, R2 = 0.34, F = 25.46, P < 0.001). When the relationships between predictor variables (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and predicted variable marital satisfaction are examined one by one, it was found that the autonomy most significantly and positively predicts marital satisfaction (β = 0.53; P < 0.001). Following the competence (β =0.39; P < 0.001), and the relatedness (β = 0.33; P < 0.001) predict marital satisfaction significantly in a positive way, respectively. According to the analysis results, all predictor variables accounted 34% of the total variance of marital satisfaction.
|Table 4: Multiple regression analysis of marital satisfaction prediction|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This study analyzed the correlations between teachers' basic psychological needs and their resilience and marital satisfaction. The research findings have shown that basic psychological needs are associated positively with teacher's resilience and marital satisfaction, and satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and relatedness that seems to benefit teacher's resilience and marital satisfaction. According to the theory of self-determination, it was concluded that three psychological needs, autonomy, competence, and relatedness significantly and positively predict resilience and marital satisfaction.
Although a direct study that examines the relationship between satisfaction basic psychological needs and resiliency was not carried out; but results of this research showed that basic psychological needs and its components (autonomy, relatedness and competence) is associated positively with teacher's resilience. In addition, it was found that supporting autonomy, relatedness, and competence positively can predict resilience which is consistent with self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan (2004) that argued social factors, especially supporting environments and contexts which help basic psychological needs, has a positive effect on resilience and health. This findings are consistent with Ryan and Deci, Bonanno and Diminich, Guild and Espiner, Wingo, et al., Khanlou and Wray  studies. These researchers believe that teachers supporting and contribution, meeting basic psychological needs facilitates and leads to mental adaptability, resilience, and well-being. Basic psychological needs satisfaction can have a considerable role in resilience, because meeting these needs provides necessary conditions for development, consistency and well-being. According to these results, we can say that basic psychological needs has positive impact on resilience. Therefore, educational managers should provide a way for meeting these needs which has positive effect such as resilience. Other findings of this study showed congruence with literature on basic psychological needs and marital satisfaction. For instance, Lu, et al.; Vlachopoulos et al. Lambert et al. found that satisfaction of each need of autonomy, competence, and relatedness significantly predicts subjective well-being. Another study by Milyavskaya and Koestner, De Neve and Oswald  showed that basic psychological needs satisfaction systematically leads to improved psychological well-being within various contexts, including family and friends. According to the theory of self-determination, the level of perceived satisfaction of the psychological needs significantly predicts the perceived subjective well-being daily. In addition, each of the dimensions basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) significantly predicts marital satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, the autonomy is the most significant predictor of marital satisfaction, and the competence and relatedness follow it, respectively. This is the reason why many studies  within the theory of self-determination emphasize the need for autonomy. Other studies also underline the importance of balance in satisfaction of psychological needs. In this study, it can be also said that balance of need satisfaction has an important mediating role on the level of happiness when the prediction levels of each need are examined.
| Conclusion|| |
The current study attempted to investigate the relationship between psychological need satisfaction and its components (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) with teacher's resilience and marital satisfaction. Based on the results of this research, we can argue that higher satisfaction of psychological needs among teachers increase their resilience and marital satisfaction, and consequently promote their resistance of personal to face the adverse conditions and well-being. In addition, teachers that their psychological needs were satisfied, had more mental health and higher resistance in uncertainty situations of work rather than other teachers. Furthermore, the following recommendations are suggested:
- Educational managers should support the satisfaction of basic psychological needs by enhancing a more positive and supportive work environment and promote teachers' sharing, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and interaction with colleagues and student's parent
- Educational managers should provide the necessary conditions to participate teachers in decision-making processes and meetings regularly that will enhance the educational outcomes.
This study had several limitations. First, the sample set was relatively small and the result cannot be generalized. Second, the researchers could not prove the causality of relationships because the data of study was correlational. Third, in this research, the role of gender was not considered. Gender plays a significant role in beliefs about the capabilities, so this variable can be effective in resiliency and marital satisfaction and personal life. Therefore, it is suggested that the gender should be examined in future studies.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Stoeber J, Rennert D. Perfectionism in school teachers: Relations with stress appraisals, coping styles, and burnout. Anxiety Stress Coping 2008;21:37-53.
Skaalvik EM, Skaalvik S. Dimensions of teachers self-efficacy and relations with strain factors, perceived collective teacher efficacy, and teacher burnout. J Educ Psychol 2007;99:611-25.
Bonanno GA, Diminich ED. Annual research review: Positive adjustment to adversity – Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2013;54:378-401.
Guild D, Espiner E. Strengthening resilience in families. Reclaiming Child Youth 2014;22:1-5.
Wagnild G. A review of the resilience scale. J Nurs Meas 2009;17:105-13.
Wingo AP, Wrenn G, Pelletier T, Gutman AR, Bradley B, Ressler KJ, et al.
Moderating effects of resilience on depression in individuals with a history of childhood abuse or trauma exposure. J Affect Disord 2010;126:411-4.
Khanlou N, Wray R. A whole community approach toward child and youth resilience promotion: A review of resilience literature. Int J Ment Health Addict 2014;12:64-79.
Ahuyi S. Study of Relation of Business Stress and Marital Consent in Male Teachers. Master's Thesis, University of Roudehen; 2004.
Veenhoven R. The study of life satisfaction. In: Saris WE, Veenhoven R, Scherpenzeel AC, Bunting B, editors. A Comparative Study of Sathsfaction with Life in Europe. Budapest: Eotvots University Press; 1996. p. 11-48.
Berthold A, Ruch W. Satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious and religious people: It's practicing one's religion that makes the difference. Front Psychol 2014;5:876.
Demerouti E, Bakker AB, Nachreiner F, Schaufeli WB. A model of burnout and life satisfaction amongst nurses. J Adv Nurs 2000;32:454-64.
Pasupuleti S, Allen RI, Lambert EG, Cluse-Tolar T. The Impact of work stressors on the life satisfaction of social service workers: A preliminary study. Adm Soc Work 2009;33:319-39.
Lambert EG, Hogan NL, Elechi OO. Jiang S, Laux JM, Dupuy P, et al
. A further examination of antecedents of correctional staff life satisfaction. Soc Sci J 2009;46:689-706.
Myers JE, Madathil J, Tingle LR. Marriage satisfaction and wellness in India and the United States: A preliminary comparison of arranged marriages and marriages of choice. J Couns Dev 2005;83:183-90.
Khan F, Aftab A. Marital satisfaction and perceived social support as vulnerability factors to depression. Am Int J Soc Sci 2013;2:99-107.
De Neve JE, Oswald AJ. Estimating the influence of life satisfaction and positive affect on later income using sibling fixed effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:19953-8.
Ryan RM, Deci EL. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemp Educ Psychol 2000;25:54-67.
Deci EL, Ryan RM. Human autonomy: The basis for true self – esteem. In M. Kernis (ED.), Efficacy, agency. And self – esteem. New York: Plenum. 2004. p. 31-49.
Morsünbül U. Autonomy and its effect on mental health. Curr Approaches Psychiatry 2012;4:260-78.
Evelein F, Korthagen F, Brekelmans M. Fulfilment of the basic psychological needs of student teachers during their first teaching experiences. Teach Teach Educ 2008;24:1137-48.
Milyavskaya, M., & Koestner, R. (2011). Psychological needs, motivation, and wellbeing: A test of self-determination theory across multiple domains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 387–391.
Sheldon KM, Krieger LS. Understanding the negative effects of legal education on law students: A longitudinal test of self-determination theory. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2007;33:883-97.
Vlachopoulos S, Asci FH, Cid L, Ersoz G, Gonzalez-Cutre D, Moreno Murcia JA, et al
. Cross-cultural invariance of the basic psychological needs in exercise scale and need satisfaction latent mean differences among Greek, Spanish, Portuguese and Turkish samples. Psychol Sports Exerc 2013;14:622-31.
Lu Q, Uysal A, Teo I. Need satisfaction and catastrophizing: Explaining the relationship among emotional ambivalence, pain, and depressive symptoms. J Health Psychol 2011;16:819-27.
Diseth A, Danielsen AG, Samdal O. A path analysis of basic need support self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level among secondary school students. Educ Psychol 2012;32:335-54.
Ghalavandi H, Amani J, Babaei Sangelaji M. Canonical correlation analysis of the basic psychological needs among school students. Educ Psychol Educ Sci Alzahra Univ 2012;8:9-28.
Arshadi N. Basic need satisfaction, work motivation, and job performance in an industrial company in Iran. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010;5:1267-72.
La Guardia JG, Ryan RM, Couchman CE, Deci EL. Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol 2000;79:367-84.
Ghorbani N, Watson PJ. Two facets of self-knowledge, big five and promotion among Iranian managers. J Soc Behav Pers Int J 2004;6:769-77.
Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale: The connor-davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC). Depress Anxiety 2003;18:76-82.
Mohammadi A, Aghajani M, Zehtabavar GH. Relationship addiction, resiliency and emotional components. J Clin Psychol Psychiatr Iran 2010;17:136-42.
Fowers, FJ, Olson DH. Enrich marital inventory: a discriminant validity and cross-validation assessment. J Marital Fam Ther 1989;15:65-79.
Soleimanian A, Navaby Nejad SH. The Effect of Irrational Thinking Based on Non-Cognitive Approach on Marital Satisfaction. Teacher Training University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. Unpublished Dissertation; 1994.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]