

ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

Year : 2018  Volume
: 4
 Issue : 2  Page : 8992 

Study of effectiveness of selfregulated learning strategies on math anxiety of dependent cognitive style of school students
Saeed Veisi Kahreh^{1}, Sadaf Imani^{2}, Yosef Morad Haseli^{3}, Fatemeh Karim Mansour^{4}
^{1} Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran ^{2} Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran ^{3} Msc Educational Psychology of in University of BuAli Sina Hamadan, Hamadan, Iran ^{4} Msc Educational Technology of in University of Islamic Azad Tehran, Branch of the South, Tehran, Iran
Date of Web Publication  24Jul2018 
Correspondence Address: Mr. Saeed Veisi Kahreh University of Buali Sina, Hamadan Iran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None  Check 
DOI: 10.4103/23952296.237296
AIM: The purpose of this study was to the effectiveness of selfregulated learning strategies on math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This quasiexperimental study was conducted with pretestposttest and control group. The statistical population included all first grade high school female students consisted of 136 participants in the academic year 2014–2015, and the sampling method was random sampling. The instruments of this study were: The math anxiety questionnaire (totally 30item scale, the scale is a 5 Likerttype scale, Cronbachs alpha 0/86) and instruments was Witkin's Group embedded figures test and 18 is the geometric shape, each of which consists of several irregular geometric shape. Concurrent validity for men 0/82, and for women was 0/63 in the pretest questionnaire completed math anxiety by the students and students had high math anxiety in the experimental two group and a one control group were replaced. The experimental groups received training in selfregulated learning strategies method in order to analyze the data. In all hypotheses, ANCOVA analysis and SPSS 22 (IBM SPSS Software SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis) was used. RESULTS: According to the findings, the selfregulated learning strategies training is reduced math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students. CONCLUSIONS: Employing the selfregulated learning strategies training reduced the math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students.
Keywords: Dependent cognitive style, math anxiety, selfregulated learning strategies
How to cite this article: Kahreh SV, Imani S, Haseli YM, Mansour FK. Study of effectiveness of selfregulated learning strategies on math anxiety of dependent cognitive style of school students. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2018;4:8992 
How to cite this URL: Kahreh SV, Imani S, Haseli YM, Mansour FK. Study of effectiveness of selfregulated learning strategies on math anxiety of dependent cognitive style of school students. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Jan 27];4:8992. Available from: https://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2018/4/2/89/237296 
Introduction   
Mathematics anxiety as a state of distress, when a student wants to do his math homework, arise.^{[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]} The main features of this disorder include: Dislikes, fears, with particular protests behavior such as stress, frustration, distress, disability and psychological disturbance at handling mathematical functions, is.^{[6]} As well, this can lead to feelings of anxiety, fear, stress, failure, embarrassment, inability to cope with the situation, sweaty palms, nervous stomach, difficulty breathing, and loss of focusing ability. According to some research on female students, higher mathematics anxiety than boys and are less likely to seek mathematical issues, jobs related to math and math related activities that go.^{[7]} The results, levels of mathematics anxiety have girls than boys.^{[8],[9],[10]} It has been shown that, between math anxiety and academic performance, there is a significant negative correlation.
A lot of different research strategies to reduce math anxiety have suggested, some of which include: Selfesteem, emotional selfmanagement due to the confidence and training activities for preservice teachers,^{[11],[12]} positive interaction with the instructor.^{[13]} This and similar strategies may help to reduce the involvement of students with math anxiety, and lead to greater success in the classroom. One of these strategies is that selfregulation skills, which is discussed in this paper.
The regulatory framework of his theory on this is that the students how the beliefs of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral selforganize.^{[14]} Bendura's social cognitive theory, provided that an appropriate theoretical framework for the development of selfregulated learning, contextual, and behavioral factors on the basis of individual opportunity, provide for the control of student learning.^{[15]} selfregulated learning as an active process, and defines the processing structure, with the goal of student learning activities, knowledge, motivation and adjust their behavior and control.^{[16]} Using selfregulated learning strategies, can be helped to academic achievement. Selfregulatory strategies, ideas, motivational, cognitive and metacognitive, and resource management, these strategies have a significant relationship with the academic achievement in mathematics.^{[17]} According to the research, the students are more aware of these strategies, and to employ them, and talk sense of selfmotivation or motivational beliefs, higher intrinsic value and less test anxiety, the academic success of decisions have.^{[18]}
The relationship between learning styles and math anxiety,^{[19],[20],[21],[22],[23]} suggests that, math anxiety among people with cognitive style, contextdependent than those who have an independent cognitive style of the field. The findings suggest that math anxiety level was significantly higher in girls than boys.^{[24]} However, more research is needed to explore how math anxiety, and learning styles of individuals are interacting. Do selfregulated learning strategies, reduce math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students or not?
Subjects and Methods   
This quasiexperimental study was conducted with pretestposttest and control group. Statistical population included all first grade high school male and female students in Holilan of Ilam in the academic year 2014–2015, and the sampling method was multistage cluster sampling in the pretest questionnaire completed math anxiety by the students and students had high math anxiety in the experimental two group, and a one control group were replaced. The experimental groups received the training in selfregulated learning strategies method and the length of the experiment 12 times, and the control group received no intervention. The research instruments were Witkin's group embedded figures test,^{[25]} and 18 is the geometric shape, each of which consists of several irregular geometric shape. Concurrent validity for men 0/82, and for women was 0/63.^{[25]} Its reliability on the 0/82^{[26]} have been calculated. Math anxiety test for math anxiety, previously validated questionnaire, with alpha Cronbach 0/91. In mathematical sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad was studied. Reliability and validity of the research process Aminifar et al.,^{[2]} is approved. Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, based on the list of tests designed Ferguson. This test consists of 30 questions which the questions related to the anxiety of students in different conditions and in their confrontation with mathematical problems. Each question test consists of five items include: Very high,^{[5]} high (4 points), medium (3 points), low (2 points) and very low (1 point), and the range of scores between 30 and 150, respectively. In the present study, Cronbach's alpha for mathematics anxiety was 0/88.
The selfregulated learning strategies, the experimental group during 12 sessions of 1–1.5 h in the classroom math students, math teacher, researcher and copresented, and a control group with no intervention of the learning strategies saw autoregulation. After the training sessions, at posttest, test math anxiety the two groups. After the data is collected, using a covariate analysis, and the analysis was performed using SPSS 22 (IBM SPSS Software SPSS Statistics is a software package used for statistical analysis).
Results   
Based on the data in [Table 1], the descriptive statistics show that the mean, standard deviation, and academic selfconcept, by sex and group. Based on the data in [Table 2], the results of these tests show that, when a significance level obtained is larger than 0/05, so both control and experimental groups, no significant difference in terms of the variance, so the preassumption for the ANCOVA were met.  Table 1: The mean, SD math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students in pretest, posttest, and followup
Click here to view 
According to [Table 3], it is clear that due to the fact that, at a significance level of the variable (0/001), and this value is smaller than the significance level of the 0/01 criteria, as well as the Fvalue come (194/805), over much of the table. According to the findings, the selfregulated learning strategies training is reduced math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students.
According to [Table 4], to compare the mean scores of the posttest, and followup to assess the continuing effectiveness of the selfregulatory strategies, to reduce math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students ANCOVA was used. The analysis results showed that the two stages of the posttest and followup, there was significant. The results of the followup phase continuity and stability are.  Table 4: Tests of betweensubjects effect to check the stability of selfregulated learning strategies
Click here to view 
Discussion and Conclusion   
The purpose of this study was to the effectiveness of selfregulated learning strategies on math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students. This quasiexperimental study was conducted with pretestposttest and control group. According to the findings, the selfregulated learning strategies training is reduced math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students and employing the selfregulated learning strategies training reduced math anxiety of dependent cognitive style school students. The research findings ^{[27],[28]} are consistent and aligned.
It could be explained that the selfregulatory learning strategies to help students in the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, including planning, control, monitoring and evaluation of their progress, as well as active listening, focus, time management selected for the study, selfdirected learning and strengthening of the management of resources such as helpseeking peers, teachers and adults in the regulation and control aspects of cognitive, motivational, and behavioral and academic performance are made, as a successful student despite the difficulty of math homework practice and performance to regulate and maintain their goals, and they reduce math anxiety.
On the other hand, selfregulatory learning strategies can be helped to academic achievement.^{[29]} Selfregulatory strategies, ideas, motivational, cognitive and metacognitive, and resource management, these strategies have a significant relationship with academic achievement in mathematics.^{[29]} According to research students more aware of these strategies, and they employ and motivation, or talk sense of selfefficacy beliefs, motivation, intrinsic value is higher and less test anxiety, the academic success of decisions have.^{[30]}
The results showed that, between math anxiety students regardless of background, and students are different depending on the context. So, students, have math anxiety are less independent of context, contextdependent than students. These findings ^{[31]} state that anxiety among those with a dependent, the area most of the people who have an independent cognitive style of fieldaligned and consistent. It could be explained that students are dependent on the context such as when solving mathematical problems, the ability to analyze their mathematical problem, and not unrelated data or redundant elements, separate from the data, the achievement fail to correctly answer, but students have independent cognitive style of field such as when solving mathematical problems, only the data associated with responses drawn attention, could not get the correct answer and in this regard may be more successful in math and also the issue of students' math anxiety, at a lower level than the students, regardless of background.
The results showed that, between gender and math anxiety students there. This finding is consistent with research results ^{[30],[31],[32]} have noted that, the female students in higher mathematics anxiety than male students, and are likely to seek mathematical issues, jobs and activities related to math, the math is concerned they remain consistent. These findings and the results of others,^{[32],[33]} the level of mathematics anxiety in female students was significantly higher than male students, they are consistent. It could be that sighn, girls and boys beliefs related to the development of competence in different fields. For example, a higher competence beliefs boys than girls in sports and mathematics, and girls have a higher competence beliefs in language, reading, and social activities. This difference increases after puberty.^{[9],[33]} The root of the difference in students' math anxiety in boys and girls, this is how girls and boys of Oz, efficiently depending on their gender roles are expected to do. With regard to the criteria for advancement, starting with high school students' knowledge of the students, not the value of the progress in mathematics and this causes during the study, more math anxiety in math than boys show.^{[30],[33]}
In the end, it is suggested to overcome the limitations of the study in future research, and to internal validity and generalizability of the results, in the same school and grade and grade levels in a broad range investigated and the results are be compared. Also recommended, secondary education practitioners different capabilities of mental, social, and cultural opportunities for boys and girls in mathematics reflecting on their work, so that early exposure to math anxiety girls, and to ensure math, compared with boys happen. However, this requires more research and studies is, to see how progress in mathematics math anxiety and gender is affected. Obviously, the results of such studies provide valuable outcomes for learners, teachers, and planners will provide training in mathematics.
Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
References   
1.  Erden M, Akgul S. Predictive power of mathematics anxiety and perceived social support from teacher for primary students' mathematics achievement. J Theory Pract Educ 2010;6:316. 
2.  Aminifar E, Allamolhodayi S, Abdolahi S. The role of mathematics anxiety, learning styles, teaching calculus to solve verbal problems. J Innov Educ 2012;42:2545. 
3.  Karimi A, Venkatesan S. Mathematics anxiety, mathematics performance and academic hardiness in high school students. Int J Educ Sci 2009;1:337. 
4.  Mohamed SH, Tarmizi RA. Anxiety in mathematics learning among secondary school learners: A comparative study between Tanzania and Malaysia. International Conference on Mathematics Education Research 2010 (ICMER 2010). Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010;8:498504. 
5.  Alamolhodayi S. Principles of Mathematics Education. Mashhad, Iran: Publication of Nama; 2009. 
6.  Abbasi M, Samadzadeh M, Shahbazzadegan B. Study of mathematics anxiety in high school students and it's relationship with selfesteem and teachers' personality characteristics. ndWorld Conference on Educational Technology Researches – WCETR2012. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2013;83:6727. 
7.  Baloglu M, Koçak R. A multivariate envestigation of the differences in mathematics anxiety. Pers Individ Dif 2006;40:132535. 
8.  Garry VS. The Effect of Mathematics Anxiety on the Course and Career Choice of High School. Ph. D. Thesis (Unpublished), Philadelphia Drexel University; 2005. 
9.  ScienceDaily. J. Six Out 10 University Students Have Mathematics Anxiety, Spanish Study Find; 2009. 
10.  Vitasari P, Herawan T, Nubli M, Wahab A, Othman A, Sinnadurai SK. Exploring mathematics anxiety among engineering students. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010;8:4829. 
11.  Kahreh SV, Imani S, Kordnoghabi R, Pour MV, Tahmasian H, RabieMsbahe A. The effectiveness of problem solving training on reduction of math anxiety amongst the students with fielddependent cognitive style in academic year 13911392. Res Curriculum Plann 2015;2:4754. 
12.  LiFang Z. Fielddependence/independence: Cognitive style or perceptual ability? Validating against thinking styles and academic achievement. Pers Individ Dif 2004;37:1295311. 
13.  Alsup J. A comparision of constructive and traditional instruction in mathematics. Educ Res Q 2005;28:317. 
14.  Linen Brink EA, Pintrich PR. Otivation as enabler of academic success. Sch Psychol Rev 2002;31:31127. 
15.  Acar EG, Aktamis H. The relationship between self – Regulation strategies and prospective elementary school teachers' Academic achievement in mathematics teaching course. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2010;2:553943. 
16.  Nikos M, George P. Student's motivational beliefs, selfregulation strategies use, and mathematics achievement. Group Psychol Math Educ 2005;3:321338. 
17.  Young K, Lenne M. Driver engagement in distracting activities and the strategies used to minimize risk. Saf Sci 2010;48:32632. 
18.  Swalander L, Taube K. Influences of family based prerequisites, reading attitude, and selfregulation on reading ability. Br J Educ Psychol 2007;32:20630. 
19.  Hadfild OD, McNeil K. The relationship between MyersBriggs personality type and mathematics teachers. J Instr Psychol 1994;21:37584. 
20.  Hadfield OD, Maddux CD. Cognitive styles and mathematics anxiety among high school students. Psychol Sch 1988;25:7583. 
21.  McCoy LP. Correlates of mathematics anxiety. Facous Learn Probl Math 1992;14:517. 
22.  Sloan T, Daane CJ, Giesen J. Mathematics anxiety and learning styels: Wath is relationship in elementary perspective teachers? Sch Sci Math 2002;102:847. 
23.  Zhang L. Thinking styles: University students, preferred teaching styles and their conceptions of effective teachers. Think Styles Creat 2006;1:195. 
24.  Leung P, Cohen R. Acquisition, Development and Propagation of Math Anxiety in Elementary School. Paper Present at the Annual Meeting of Psychology of Mathematics and Education of North America, Toronto, CA; 2004. 
25.  Honeyman MS, Miller G. The effect of teaching approaches on achievement as satisfaction of field dependent and field independent learners in animal science. J Anim Sci 1998;76:17105. 
26.  Witkin HA, Oltman PK, Raskin E, Karp SA. Manual for Embedded Figures Test, Children's Embedded Figures Test, and Group Embedded Figures Test. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1971. 
27.  Bryant P. Self regulation and maral awareness among entrepreneurs. J Bus Venturing 2009;24:505, 518. 
28.  Sobhaninejad M, Abedi A. Examine the relationship between selfregulated learning strategies and academic motivation of high school students, and academic performance in math. Journal of Tabriz University 2006;1:2434. 
29.  Alamolhodaei H. Students' cognitive style and mathematical problem solving. J Korea Soc Math Educ D Res Math Educ 2002;6:17182. 
30.  Betz NE. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of math anxiety in college student. J Couns Psychol 1978;25:4418. 
31.  Santrock J. Educational Psychology. New York: McGrawHill; 2001. 
32.  Kadivar P, Farzad V, Dasta M. Examine gender differences in the efficacy of achievement, and selfregulation strategies in academic achievement in mathematics. Psychol Stud Univ Fac Educ Psychol 2012;8:2753. 
33.  Townsend M, Wilton K. Evaluating change in attitude toward mathematics using the then now procedure in a cooperative learning programme. Br J Educ Psychol 2003;73:47387. 
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]
