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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Psychometrics properties of the Persian version of Beck Anxiety Inventory in North of Iranian adolescents
Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi, Zoharah Omar, Seyed Mousa Kafi Masoleh
April-June 2015, 1(2):145-153
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152233  
Aim: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Persian Version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) for adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research examined the validity and reliability of BAI in North of Iranian normal population. After psychologists had been sufficiently prepared, they were dispatched to different regions of the Guilan (Guilan Province of Iran), referring to residential places for boys and girls in the research. At the end, 783 respondents were randomly recruited and tested using BAI. Two hundred and thirty-two respondents were randomly selected and re-tested in order to measure test-retest reliability with a 1-week interval time between first and second tests. To assess validity; we performed a principal component exploratory factor analysis to explore the factor structure of the BAI and Pearson's correlation coefficient performed for convergent validity between the BAI, self-rating anxiety scale, symptom check list-90-R, sexual abuse trauma index and divergent validity with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II. For data reduction and analysis, the SPSS 22 and Amos 18 were conducted. Result: Findings showed that the Persian version of BAI proved an acceptable test-retest reliability (r = 0.67), an internal consistency (α =0.88), convergent validity (0.40-0.44), and divergent validity (r = 0.216) with BDI-II. We found a clear cut point for our society and these findings confirmed the confirmatory factor analysis results and suggested that the factor structure for the BAI-Iranian is valid and stable. The indices were the Chi-square statistics (χ2 df =547.234), the comparative fit index =0.91), the standardized root-mean-square (0.05), the root-mean-square error of approximation (0.04), and the Akaike Information Criteria (694) a good model fit is indicated. Conclusion: The results support the applicability of BAI in adolescents and suggest the use of this inventory for screening general anxiety by school counselors and psychologists adolescents and research aims.
  6 3,926 345
Relationship between stress and religious coping and mental health in mothers with normal and intellectually disabled children
Farzaneh Motamedi Sharak, Bagher Ghobari Bonab, Mina Jahed
July-September 2017, 3(3):198-204
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.219422  
AIM: The purpose of present study was to investigate the relationship between stress, religious coping with mental health of mothers who have normal and intellectually disabled children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To fulfill the above purpose, 383 individuals (190 mothers who had intellectually disabled children and 193 mothers who had normal children) were chosen via convenience sampling. To collect data, Religious Coping Scale (Pargament, 2000), General Health Questionnaire, (Goldberg and Hillier, 1979), and Questionnaire on Resources and Stress (GreenBerg and Crick, 1983) were utilized; the data were analyzed through regression coefficient. RESULTS: Analysis of the data showed that while the stress of intellectually disabled children's mothers was significantly and inversely related to social function, the stress of normal children's mothers was significantly and directly related to other factors of mental health (depression, anxiety, and social function). In both groups, there was a significant and direct relationship between positive religious coping and social function and also between negative religious coping and physical function, anxiety, and depression. While there was a significant and direct relationship between the stress of intellectually disabled children's mothers and negative religious coping methods, there was no relationship between the stress and religious coping methods of normal children's mothers. Stress, physical function, anxiety, and depression of intellectually disabled children's mothers were significantly more than normal children's mothers. In addition, the comparison of the two groups showed that there is more positive religious coping among mothers with normal children. CONCLUSION: The intervention in religious beliefs and reduction of stress among intellectually disabled children's mothers is something necessary and important. Hence, the present study suggests that it is necessary to persuade intellectually disabled children's mothers into religious beliefs and reliance on God in order to reduce their mental pressure and enhance their mental health.
  6 2,025 231
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination in female nursing students
Elamurugan Sujindra, Thirthar Palanivelu Elamurugan
April-June 2015, 1(2):71-74
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152216  
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Lack of early detection leads to low survival rates in less developed countries. Breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, quick, and cost-free procedure for early detection. This study attempts to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding self-breast examination in a cohort of female nursing students. Methodology: A total of 254 female nursing students were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 21 questions (10 on knowledge, 5 on attitude, and 6 on the practice). For knowledge items, categorical responses (yes, I don't know, and no) were applied with an item score of "2," "1," "0," respectively, for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice, the answers were either yes, no or options were already specified. Results: Response rate was 94.5%. Total mean knowledge score was 14.08 ± 3.42. 87.5% accepted that early detection can improve the chance of survival. 89.2% have heard of BSE and agreed that BSE can help in early detection of breast cancer. 93.3% felt it was necessary to do BSE and 87.5% have done BSE before. 5% of nursing students felt that doing BSE was embarrassing. Only 33.3% preformed BSE regularly in a year. Conclusion: BSE functions as an effective preventive health behavior and an important component of any program for the early detection of breast cancer. Nursing students, being future health advisors, should be adequately informed about early detection methods and trained in BSE.
  5 12,457 1,204
Acceptance and commitment therapy on parents of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders
Shuvabrata Poddar, VK Sinha, Mukherjee Urbi
July-September 2015, 1(3):221-225
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158331  
Aim: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that hinder the normal developmental process and pose enormous challenges to the parents in terms of their role expectations and adjustment with the irreversible conditions of their child. However, little attention has been paid to their psychological needs and wellbeing. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focuses on accepting things that are beyond control and commit to changing those things, which are possible to change, by increasing the psychological flexibility of the person, thereby aiding to better realistic adjustments. The present study aims at studying the effectiveness of ACT on parents of children and adolescents with ASDs. Materials and Methods: It followed a repeated measures design, comprising five parents having children and adolescents with ASDs receiving treatment from inpatient and outpatient services of Child Guidance Clinic, Central Institute of Psychiatry, to test the effect of 10 session protocol spanned over 2-month. Assessment measures were done along state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF respectively. Baseline measures were taken prior to the treatment and follow-up measures were taken after nine treatment sessions. Results: Pre- to post-treatment improvements were found on state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life. Conclusion: Findings implied that ACT may have promise in helping parents better to adjust to the difficulties in rearing children diagnosed with ASDs.
  4 5,274 786
Social loafing among nurses and its relation with organizational justice
Manal Etemadi, Mohsen Ghaffari Darab, Elahe Khorasani, Fardin Moradi, Habibeh Vazirinasab
April-June 2015, 1(2):125-130
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152226  
Background and Aims: Social loafing refers to individuals' tendency to exert fewer efforts when they work in a group than when they work alone. Individuals who feel the injustice in an origination are likelier to tend to this phenomenon. The present study is meant to investigate social loafing and its relation with organizational justice among nurses of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive one. The population of this study included all nurses working in the Tohid Educational and Health Center in Sanandaj City. The instrument of collecting data was a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, New York, USA) and employing descriptive statistics techniques such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, and inferential ones such as Spearman, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results : On the basis of the findings of the research, among the distributive, interactional, procedural and systemic organizational justice, there is a reverse correlation between distributive component and social loafing (P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate that the mean of social loafing in females is more than that of males (P < 0.05). Further, the variable of years of experience is effective on the mean scores of individuals' loafing (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The hospital should try reduce the possibility of social loafing in order to prevent the negative effects related to loafing. One-way for attaining this aim is to highlight the importance of the job in such a way that individuals take their tasks and objectives as significant and important; further the nursing role in caring patients should be considered as outstanding.
  4 4,648 504
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of exercise during pregnancy among antenatal mothers
Elamurugan Sujindra, Arounassalame Bupathy, A Suganya, R Praveena
July-September 2015, 1(3):234-237
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158347  
Introduction: Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal health care services. Regular exercise is promoted for its overall health benefits. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, recommends that pregnant women can exercise moderately for 30 min on most days of the week. Methodology: A total of 200 antenatal mothers were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 25 questions (21 on knowledge, 3 on attitude and 1 on practice). For knowledge items categorical responses (yes, I don't know and no) were applied with an item score of '2', '1', '0' respectively for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice the answers were either yes, no. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Response rate was 100%. The age range of the study group was 18-35 years with a mean age of 25 ± 4.51 years. The majority of the study population were Hindus (81%), had undergone primary education (63%) and were homemakers (74%). The total mean knowledge score was 20.53 ± 2.08. 51% felt it was necessary to do exercise during pregnancy. 18% were practicing exercise in pregnancy. Conclusion: The knowledge of our women on exercise during pregnancy was less than average, and their attitude was favorable. However a very few were actually practicing exercise in pregnancy.
  3 16,743 1,600
Role of mindfulness training on psychological capital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences students
Rahele Samouei, Farzane Ghasemi
October-December 2015, 1(4):293-297
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.163936  
Introduction: Given the novel and applied nature of mindfulness techniques and due to the importance of psychological capital on the lives of students, this study aims to investigate the role of mindfulness education on psychological capital of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study uses semi-empirical method with pretest and posttest to study two groups of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with the help of five-factor mindfulness questionnaire and psychological capital questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability in eight sessions. The results were gathered after three months and analyzed using student's t-test. Result: The results of comparison between the average posttest score of test and control groups showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Given the fact that the effectiveness of these types of interventions has been confirmed by various studies, by controlling executive limitations before educational interventions, it is possible to achieve better results.
  3 2,351 276
Relating emotional intelligence and social competence to academic performance in high school students
Mohammad Akbaribooreng, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Asad Allah Zangouei, Masoud Ramroodi
April-June 2015, 1(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152218  
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence with academic performance of Zabol high school students in Iran. Methodology: It is a descriptive-correlational study and its statistical population consists of 9,386 high school students of Zabol of which 351 subjects were selected using Cochran's sample size determination formula and multi-stage random sampling method. Data collection instruments included both Schutt's EI questionnaire and social competence questionnaire of Illinois University. The students' first semester GPA was used as the Academic Performance indicator as well. Results: The results of data analysis showed that EI and social competence of students have a significant positive relationship with their academic performance and is able to predict their academic performance. The correlation between all the components of EI and academic performance of students was significant as well. Conclusion: Students with high EI and social competence tended to be more pro social and performed better in school. This suggests that integrating lessons with socioemotional learning in schools might improve students' performance, decrease maladaptive behavior, and increase pro social behavior. Finally, only well-designed experiments and longitudinal studies at various levels (elementary, middle and high school) will show whether EI and social competence can be learned (and at what age) and whether teaching these skills will have lasting effects.
  3 4,050 529
Factors affecting physicians' behaviors in induced demand for health services
Saeed Karimi, Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Somaye Afshari
January-March 2015, 1(1):43-51
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147469  
Background and Aims : One of the controversial topics in the health economy is the theory of induced demand. Physicians as experts enjoy superior knowledge and information and can use their extra knowledge for persuading patients to use unnecessary healthcare. The objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting on physicians' behavior in induced demand using the experiences of the experts in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The research is applied a qualitative method. Semi-structured interview was used for data generation. Participants in this study were people who had been informed in this regard and had to be experienced and were known as experts. Purposive sampling was done for data saturation. Seventeen people were interviewed, and criteria such as data "reliability of the information" and "stability" were considered. The anonymity of the interviewees was preserved. The data are transcribed, categorized and then used the thematic analysis. Results : In the present study, 41 sub-themes and three main themes were extracted. The three main themes included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors, and economic factors. Each of these themes had sub-themes wh ich, for example, included the authority of physicians, competition among physicians, regulative and legal affairs, ethical factors, physician's customer focus, and physicians' tendency to maximizing profits. Conclusion : The results of the present study represent a comprehensive image of the reasons effective on physicians' behaviors in occurring induced demand. The most obvious findings of this research included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors and economic factors. In the domain of structural factors; improper supervision of medical indications, expectations of physicians to activate other medical sections, physicians' independency of insurance contracts, in the domain of factors due to statuses and behaviors, physicians' authority in patients' compliance, competition among physicians, physicians' customer focus physicians' insufficient knowledge and skills, lack of commitment to ethics, and in the domain of economic factors; physician's tendency to maximizing profits, improper dependency of physicians and other health services providers are among the factors of occurring induced demand.
  3 8,036 869
Item analysis of multiple choice questions: Assessing an assessment tool in medical students
Chandrika Rao, HL Kishan Prasad, K Sajitha, Harish Permi, Jayaprakash Shetty
October-December 2016, 2(4):201-204
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.189670  
Aim: Assessment is a very important component of the medical course curriculum. Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing, and using information from student's responses to assess the quality of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Difficulty index (P) and discrimination index (D) are the parameters used to evaluate the standard of MCQs. The aim of the study was to assess quality of MCQs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology. One hundred and twenty, 2nd year MBBS students took the MCQs test comprising 40 questions. There was no negative marking and evaluation was done out of 40 marks, and 50% score was the passing mark. Postvalidation of the paper was done by item analysis. Each item was analyzed for difficulty index, discrimination index, and distractor effectiveness. The relationship between them for each item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 20.0. Results: Difficulty index of 34 (85%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 2 (5%) item was too easy (P >70%), and 4 (10%) items were too difficult (P <30%). Discrimination index of 24 (60%) items was excellent (D >0.4), 4 (10%) items were good (D =0.3–0.39), 6 (15%) items were acceptable (D =0.2–0.29), and 6 (15%) items were poor (D < 0–0.19). A total 40 items had 120 distractors. Amongst these, 6 (5%) were nonfunctional distracters, 114 (95%) were functional distracters. The discrimination index exhibited positive correlation with difficulty index (r = 0.563, P = 0.010, significant at 0.01 level [two-tailed]). The maximum discrimination (D = 0.5–0.6) was observed in acceptable range (P = 30–70%). Conclusion: In this study, the majority of items fulfilled the criteria of acceptable difficulty and good discrimination. Moderately easy/difficult had the maximal discriminative ability. Very difficult item displayed poor discrimination, but the very easy item had high discrimination index, indicating a faulty item, or incorrect keys. The results of this study would initiate a change in the way MCQ test items are selected for any examination, and there should be proper assessment strategy as part of the curriculum development.
  3 13,027 4,404
Effectiveness of cognitive learning strategies on test anxiety and school performance of students
Roya Rasouli, Zeynab Mohammad Alipour, Taghi Pour Ebrahim
January-March 2018, 4(1):20-25
DOI:10.4103/jepr.jepr_84_16  
AIM: This study aimed to effectiveness of cognitive learning strategies on test anxiety and school performance in female high school students. METHODS: The study was quasi-experimental with pretest–posttest and random assignment and control group. The sample consisted of 60 individuals selected randomly who were divided into two groups, i.e., one experimental group and one control group. Data were collected through scale of anxiety test Sarason test anxiety scale(SAT) and students' marks in the middle-term examination and the final examination were collected from the history book. At first, both experimental and control groups were pretested through test anxiety scale. Their marks in the middle-term examination in history were considered. Then, cognitive learning strategies, including repeating and reviewing, expanding, summarizing, comparing and organizing, were reached to experimental group in four sections. Both groups were posttested again by SAT after the intervention. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-independent) were used to analyze data with SPSS-21 software. RESULTS: The results of dependent and independent groups t-tests showed a significant difference between pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hence, it was concluded that training on cognitive learning strategies has a positive effect, leading to a reduction of test anxiety and enhancement of the guidance school girls' educational performance.
  2 2,945 393
Learning strategies and academic success in traditional and nontraditional higher education students
Alireza Ghasemizad
January-March 2015, 1(1):7-9
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.147449  
Aim: This paper aimed at studying the learning strategies and effort/persistence of the traditional and nontraditional students. Method: Through cluster sampling, 245 students from four major and large Islamic Azad University branches in Iran were randomly selected, and questionnaires were distributed among them. The research method was correlation and casual-comparative. Cronbach's alpha method was used to calculate the reliability. The Item analysis and expert consensus were applied to calculate the validity of instruments. Results: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the learning strategies of these two groups of students. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the academic success of these two groups.
  2 4,482 441
The relationship between happiness, self-control and locus of control
Seyede Golafrouz Ramezani, Abbas Gholtash
April-June 2015, 1(2):100-104
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152222  
Aim: The aim of this study was explored the relationship between happiness, self-control, and locus of control (LOC). Methods: Research method in this survey was descriptive and correlational. A sample of 200 college students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age was studied using cluster sampling method. To collect data, a use was made of three questionnaires included the Oxford Happiness Inventory, self-control scale of Nikmanesh [1] and Rotter's LOC. Data analysis involved multiple regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study indicated that, happiness is positively and significantly related to self-control. Furthermore, self-control was the strongest predictor for happiness. Conclusion: It was also suggested that self-control is positively and significantly related to LOC.
  2 10,894 1,140
Can the five-factor model adequately represent the quality-of-life in cancerous patients?
Mojtaba Habibi, Pouya Zandian, Haleh Hadi Pour, Samaneh Abedini
April-June 2015, 1(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152221  
Background: Mental health provides a significant achievement for cancerous patients to alleviate prolonged suffering albeit stress would be the main part of their diseases. Aims: We intend to study the influence of personality dimensions upon cancer patients' quality-of-life (QOL). Materials and Methods: Short form of NEO Personality Inventory and QOL questionnaire were applied in both descriptive and correlational analyzing. Moreover, the sample group was included 100 patient selected purposefully. Who refer to two medical center of Tehran from April 2012 to March 2013. Participants all fillequestionnaires out. The QOL questionnaire and the short format of NEO personality inventory were used. All of the data were analyzed with Pearson coefficient and multivariate regression analysis. Results: The results indicated that a significant relationship between neuroticism, agreeableness, and QOL was among the patients. Meantime, 23% of variances in quality of lives would be accounted with factors such as neuroticism, agreeableness, extroversion which could significantly predict changes in the patients' lives. Conclusion: Personality factors are an important variable for the QOL in cancer patients.
  2 2,613 261
Rumination and co-rumination: Factors predicting depression
Mohammad Javad Piraman, Mahgol Tavakoli, Hajar Torkan
April-June 2016, 2(2):99-104
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.178865  
Aim: All groups and individuals especially students are supposed to be at risk of getting involved with depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between rumination and co-rumination among students of Isfahan University. Methods: This study benefits from both causal-comparative and descriptive-correlative research methods. The participants were bachelor students of Isfahan University. Using simple random sampling, a sample of 234 students from 10 colleges of Isfahan University was selected. They were evaluated based on three research tools such as the second edition of Beck's depression indicators, response rumination scale, and co-rumination questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. Results: Results indicated that rumination (P < 0.001) and co.rumination (P = 0.009) had significant and positive relationship with a total score of depression. Furthermore, the correlation of all three rumination subscales and all subscales of co-rumination except for subscale in which “the person in question encourages his friends to discuss problems” had positive and significant relationship with the total score of depression (P > 0.001). On the other hand, results revealed that the projection of students with depression in the case of rumination was significant (P ≤ 0.0001, β =0.390). Conclusions: Findings highlighted the predictive value of rumination in students with depression. In addition, this paper identified the importance of training in friendship communicational skills, talking effectively with friends, right thought, and appropriate adjustments of emotions among students.
  2 2,205 266
REVIEW ARTICLE
The impact of acceptance and commitment therapy on pain catastrophizing: The case of hemodialysis patients in Iran
Diana Ramezanzadeh, Gholamreza Manshaee
April-June 2016, 2(2):69-75
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.178868  
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in research and treatment of chronic pain psychological stress of the patients suffering from kidney failure and undergoing hemodialysis treatment. The present study set out to investigate the practical effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on improving the pain catastrophizing of hemodialysis patients. A quasi-experimental design was used in which a target sample of 30 hemodialysis patients, who received treatment at Dolatabad Hemodialysis Center, Isfahan, Iran, volunteered to participate in this study. They were then randomly divided into two groups (i.e., control and experimental groups), 15 each. Based on acceptance and commitment approach, the experimental sample received group-based instruction during an eight session period offered twice a week. The participants in both treatment and control groups were given pain catastrophizing scale before and after the treatment. The findings revealed that participants receiving group instruction based on acceptance and commitment training approach showed remarkably lower pain catastrophizing compared with those in the control group.
  2 2,085 265
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of the penn resiliency program on student with emotional problems
Shahram Vahedi, Rahim Badri Gargari, Somayeh Gholami
July-September 2016, 2(3):145-149
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.180302  
Aim: Education in university is difficult for some students and so depression, stress, and anxiety are prevalent problems in colleges across the country. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be defeated in the course. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program to decrease emotional problems. Methods: This study followed a randomized controlled trial and included a pretest and posttest. A purposive sampling was used. In this way, participants were 30 students randomly selected between who have emotional problems in 2014 at Tabriz University, Iran. They were assigned into control and experimental group. Data were collected using depression, anxiety, and stress scale 21. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each subscale indicate high internal reliability. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was run to analyze the data. Results: The findings of this study show a decrease in the mean score in the mean score of the experimental group in the posttest. Multivariate variance analysis MANOVA showed difference in posttest mean scores of participants' anxiety, depression, and stress in the experimental group. Conclusions: The Penn Resiliency Program will promote psychosocial well-being for student with emotional problems.
  1 2,814 323
Validation of the training and human resource development of excellence model in Iran
Abasalt Khorasani, Mohammad Amouzad, Azam Molamohammadi
January-March 2016, 2(1):35-43
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.174790  
Aim: The main objective of this study was to validate Training and Development of Excellence Model (TDEM) in Iran. Method: This study is a descriptive research and was conducted by using survey method. The statistical society contains specialists, experts, and key knower of training area about TDEM in Iran. Statistical sample included 154 people selected using a stratified random sampling method. The tool used is a questionnaire containing 124 items. Obtained results were analyzed using statistical methods of structural equation benchmarking and using LISREL statistical software (lisrel 8.5). Results: The research findings showed that the amount of the Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index was 0.91, and the amount of the Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation was estimated by 0.08, therefore model validation indexes are desirable. Furthermore, by using t-test, investigation of the model parameters is discussed. Conclusions: The results of this study have been indicated favorable validation indexes of TDEM. The segmentation of the model is also supported by the findings (segmentation into three parts; enablers, processes, and results).
  1 2,159 230
Investigation of the multiple relationships between early maladaptive schemas and coping styles with anxiety
Maryam Zadahmad, Hajar Torkan
January-March 2016, 2(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.174791  
Aim: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple relationships between early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and coping styles with anxiety. Methods: This was a descriptivecorrelational. Therefore, a study sample consisted of 200 students, from the Islamic Azad University of Karaj, were chosen using multistage cluster sampling method. The research instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, a short form of young early maladaptive schema, and short form of the coping inventory for stressful situations. Result: The statistical analysis results indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between EMS and emotion-oriented coping with anxiety, and there was a significant negative relationship between task-oriented copings with anxiety. Moreover, also EMS including mistrust-abuse, vulnerability to harm and illness, and social isolation-alienation were able to predict anxiety. Conclusions: With the increase of mistrust-abuse, the vulnerability to harm and illness and social isolation-alienation, anxiety also increases. The emotion-oriented life style would ease stressful events and has the ability to predict anxiety. In contrast, individuals with task-oriented coping style either overcome the problem or minimize it by managing wants, internal and environmental conflicts, with the change and reform and regulating the source of stress. Thus, it can be concluded that changes in these variables would be associated with changes in anxiety.
  1 2,484 292
Assessment of the hospital information system in compliance with Certification Commission for Healthcare Information Technology standard at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' academic hospitals
Maryam Jahanbakhsh, Ashgar Ehteshami, Abbas Shafiei
April-June 2016, 2(2):105-110
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.178866  
Introduction: Hospital information system (HIS) plays an important role in improving the quality of treatment in hospitals. These systems are considered as an information system that can have a great influence on the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital management. Assessment system as one of the most important debates in the hospital management system has received great emphasis. The present study was aimed to assess HISs of Isfahan academic hospitals and was performed using Certification Commission for Health Information Technology (CCHIT) standard. Methods: This study is an applied descriptive cross-sectional study, in which 11 academic HISs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were surveyed by using a CCHIT standard checklist with three areas (information management, patient management, and technical management). Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software V. 18 (IBM), and descriptive statistics was used to examine measures of central tendencies. Results: Data analysis revealed that the mean score of information management, patient management, and technical management areas in compliance with CCHIT standard were 66.1, 63.5, and 64.6 percent, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it can be expressed that the criteria of HIS has been implemented in a rather favorable way. Hence, to achieve the desired mode, planning must be done on designing systems to increase the efficiency of information management, patient management, and software and technical infrastructures.
  1 2,566 341
The effect role of knowledge management on organizational innovation in University of Iran
Reza Barari
April-June 2015, 1(2):87-95
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152220  
Aim: Knowledge in the age of information technology is considered as one of the main sources of achieving competitive advantage in a dynamic and competitive environment. The present aim of this study is conducted to investigate the role of knowledge management on organizational innovation among employees of the University of Mazandaran. Methods: The research method is descriptive and correlational type and clearly is based on structural equations modeling (SEM). Statistical population of this study is about 400 people from employees of the University of Mazandaran. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) knowledge management questionnaire which has four dimensions of exteriorization, combination, internalization, and socialization and Chopani (2012) organizational innovation questionnaire which has three dimensions of manufacturing, process and administrative questionnaires were distributed among 189 employees of University of Mazandaran. The reliability of knowledge management and organizational innovation questionnaires using Cronbach alpha coefficient is determined 0.945 and 0.944, respectively. Results: The research findings showed that all components of knowledge management and organizational innovation are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: By implementation of SEM to test knowledge management and organizational innovation, it is determined that the proposed model has good fitness and organizational innovation truly has been explained through knowledge management and in other words, knowledge management has positive and significant effect on organizational innovation. The managers of the organization (university) should pay attention and emphasize on the cooperation with interdisciplinary teams, entrepreneurship, and spirit of cooperation and participation.
  1 3,282 420
The comparision of the alexithymia in addicted and nonaddicted people in esfahan in 2013
Nafise Javani, Asghar Aghaei
April-June 2015, 1(2):161-165
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152240  
Aim: The present study was conducted to compare alexithymia in addicted and nonaddicted people in Isfahan in 2013. Methods: It had a causal-comparative research method; therefore, 58 addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers of Isfahan were selected through available method. After selecting addicted samples, nonaddicted samples (58 individuals) were chosen from the people living in Isfahan via systematic sampling. Nonaddicted samples were matched to the addicted ones according to the variables of age, gender, educational level, and lodging. The applied instruments in the current study included: The questionnaire of demographic variables and Torento's (1994) 20-item scale of alexithymia. The achieved data were analyzed through MANOVA by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that in general alexithymia (difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings (DDF), and extrovert thinking), there is a significant difference between addicted and nonaddicted groups (P < 0.05). In extrovert thinking subscale, there is a significant difference between addicted and nonaddicted groups (P < 0.05); however, there is no significant difference between the subscales of difficulty identifying feelings and DDF in addicted and nonaddicted groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The general conclusion implies that the alexithymia can be one of the effective factors in an individual's tendency to drug abuse especially in men.
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Investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher's happiness in the working environment
Fatemeh Bahri Najafi, Ebrahim Mershah Jafari
April-June 2015, 1(2):171-178
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.152253  
Aim: This study was aimed at investigating the relationship between religious beliefs and elementary teacher's happiness in the working environment. This was a descriptive-correlation study. Methods: The population under study was consisted of all the elementary teachers of district 2 of ministry of education and training during the academic year of 2013-2014. Using Cochrane's volume sampling, a number of 250 elementary teachers was chosen from the population of teachers (a number of 690 teachers). Two types of questionnaires were used to elicit data, the questionnaire of vision assessment (by Serajzadeh), and Oxford happiness (by Argyle). SPSS 19 was used for the both levels of descriptive (such as frequency, mean, percentage, and standard deviation) and inferential (such as Pearson correlation, multiple regression, and MANOVA) statistics. Result: The results of the study showed that there is a significant relationship between elementary teacher's happiness and their religious beliefs (r = 0.241, P < 0.001). There also existed a significant relationship between faith (one of the aspects of religious beliefs) and happiness (r = 0.01, P < 0.05). The other significant relationships of the aspects of religious belief and happiness were for the outcome aspect (r = 0.034, P < 0.005), rite aspect (r = 0.01, P < 0.05), and the experimental aspect of religious beliefs (r = 0.017, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Result showed that there is no significant relationship between the rite aspect of religious belief and happiness based on gender, working experience, educational background/level, and type of school. In contrast, there is a significant relationship between religious beliefs and age.
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Effect of yoga module on low back pain in information technology professionals
Parimala Sunil, Sony Kumari
October-December 2016, 2(4):234-237
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.189663  
Introduction: The prevalence of back pain is on the rise. “ Throughout the medical profession, we are finding a shocking increase in both the frequency and severity of back problems,” writes Alfred O. Bonati, MD, Director of Orthopedic Center Institute and Shirley Linde, Ph.D., in their No more back pain (Pharos, 1991). A modern computer professional is a typical example of back pain. He has all three problems such as sedentary life, wrong posture and the pressure of targets. All these lead to chronic back pain. Design: Two group pre-post design is used. On first day, before giving the yoga module, Pre STAI(X1), Pre STAI(X2) and Pre BDI is measured. After giving yoga module for 10 days, Post STAI(X1), X2 and BDI is measured. Result: The data was not normally distributed hence we are using non parametric test Wilcoxon test within group and Mann Whitney test between groups. The results show that there was significant change in STAI(X1) and BDI variables between groups and no significant change in STAI(X2). Conclusion: The present study has shown significant result in STAI(X1) and BDI when compared with previous studies. There was 80% decrease in backpain using RMDI based on collective feedback report. With this, we can conclude that yoga module was effective in reducing chronic low back pain, anxiety and depression levels.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Social marketing, the key for dealing with social pathology especially alcohol and substance abuse
Rahele Samouei, Nahid Tavakoli, Mansoorehsadat Mirabdellahi, Alireza Jabbari
July-September 2015, 1(3):187-192
DOI:10.4103/2395-2296.158324  
Social marketing tries to affect the social behavior of the target audience in a way that is beneficial to the society and has wide use in international health programs such as dealing with alcohol and substance abuse. Therefore, the current study aimed to introduce a social marketing model developed for dealing with alcohol and substance abuse. This study uses review method by searching main keywords in credible scientific websites, books, research articles, scientific projects and dissertations. The main keywords included social marketing, social pathology, alcohol abuse and substance abuse, which were used separately and together. Main investigated websites included Web of Science, PubMed and Science direct websites. Afterwards the abstract and full texts of the gathered articles were investigated and unrelated articles were eliminated. The gathered data were then categorized and reported. Based on the results of this study, an effective strategy for dealing with alcohol and substance abuse needs to go through several stages, including product (including physical and virtual), cost (including the cost of methods used), place (the ways information can reach the audience), advertisement (notification methods), the availability of target audience, cooperation (by related people and organizations), political aspects (political fight against alcohol and substance abuse), public aspects (gathering humanitarian aids) and finally evaluation and implementation of the strategy. Selecting the behavior that needs to change, careful planning and cohesion of the aforementioned stages along with careful evaluation and implementation can help change undesirable behaviors and introduction of desirable ones. However, any strategy needs to change the attitude, awareness an behavior of the target audience in order to achieve the desirable results.
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* Source: CrossRef