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Item analysis of multiple choice questions: Assessing an assessment tool in medical students
Chandrika Rao, HL Kishan Prasad, K Sajitha, Harish Permi, Jayaprakash Shetty
October-December 2016, 2(4):201-204
Aim: Assessment is a very important component of the medical course curriculum. Item analysis is the process of collecting, summarizing, and using information from student's responses to assess the quality of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Difficulty index (P) and discrimination index (D) are the parameters used to evaluate the standard of MCQs. The aim of the study was to assess quality of MCQs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pathology. One hundred and twenty, 2nd year MBBS students took the MCQs test comprising 40 questions. There was no negative marking and evaluation was done out of 40 marks, and 50% score was the passing mark. Postvalidation of the paper was done by item analysis. Each item was analyzed for difficulty index, discrimination index, and distractor effectiveness. The relationship between them for each item was determined by Pearson correlation analysis using SPSS 20.0. Results: Difficulty index of 34 (85%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 2 (5%) item was too easy (P >70%), and 4 (10%) items were too difficult (P <30%). Discrimination index of 24 (60%) items was excellent (D >0.4), 4 (10%) items were good (D =0.3–0.39), 6 (15%) items were acceptable (D =0.2–0.29), and 6 (15%) items were poor (D < 0–0.19). A total 40 items had 120 distractors. Amongst these, 6 (5%) were nonfunctional distracters, 114 (95%) were functional distracters. The discrimination index exhibited positive correlation with difficulty index (r = 0.563, P = 0.010, significant at 0.01 level [two-tailed]). The maximum discrimination (D = 0.5–0.6) was observed in acceptable range (P = 30–70%). Conclusion: In this study, the majority of items fulfilled the criteria of acceptable difficulty and good discrimination. Moderately easy/difficult had the maximal discriminative ability. Very difficult item displayed poor discrimination, but the very easy item had high discrimination index, indicating a faulty item, or incorrect keys. The results of this study would initiate a change in the way MCQ test items are selected for any examination, and there should be proper assessment strategy as part of the curriculum development.
  18,531 4,588 9
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of exercise during pregnancy among antenatal mothers
Elamurugan Sujindra, Arounassalame Bupathy, A Suganya, R Praveena
July-September 2015, 1(3):234-237
Introduction: Safe maternity with improved neonatal outcomes is predicated on proper antenatal health care services. Regular exercise is promoted for its overall health benefits. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, recommends that pregnant women can exercise moderately for 30 min on most days of the week. Methodology: A total of 200 antenatal mothers were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 25 questions (21 on knowledge, 3 on attitude and 1 on practice). For knowledge items categorical responses (yes, I don't know and no) were applied with an item score of '2', '1', '0' respectively for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice the answers were either yes, no. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Response rate was 100%. The age range of the study group was 18-35 years with a mean age of 25 ± 4.51 years. The majority of the study population were Hindus (81%), had undergone primary education (63%) and were homemakers (74%). The total mean knowledge score was 20.53 ± 2.08. 51% felt it was necessary to do exercise during pregnancy. 18% were practicing exercise in pregnancy. Conclusion: The knowledge of our women on exercise during pregnancy was less than average, and their attitude was favorable. However a very few were actually practicing exercise in pregnancy.
  18,526 1,720 5
The relationship between happiness, self-control and locus of control
Seyede Golafrouz Ramezani, Abbas Gholtash
April-June 2015, 1(2):100-104
Aim: The aim of this study was explored the relationship between happiness, self-control, and locus of control (LOC). Methods: Research method in this survey was descriptive and correlational. A sample of 200 college students ranging from 18 to 28 years of age was studied using cluster sampling method. To collect data, a use was made of three questionnaires included the Oxford Happiness Inventory, self-control scale of Nikmanesh [1] and Rotter's LOC. Data analysis involved multiple regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Results: The results of this study indicated that, happiness is positively and significantly related to self-control. Furthermore, self-control was the strongest predictor for happiness. Conclusion: It was also suggested that self-control is positively and significantly related to LOC.
  13,706 1,309 4
Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination in female nursing students
Elamurugan Sujindra, Thirthar Palanivelu Elamurugan
April-June 2015, 1(2):71-74
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Lack of early detection leads to low survival rates in less developed countries. Breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, quick, and cost-free procedure for early detection. This study attempts to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding self-breast examination in a cohort of female nursing students. Methodology: A total of 254 female nursing students were included in the study, who filled in the questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 21 questions (10 on knowledge, 5 on attitude, and 6 on the practice). For knowledge items, categorical responses (yes, I don't know, and no) were applied with an item score of "2," "1," "0," respectively, for positive knowledge. For attitude and practice, the answers were either yes, no or options were already specified. Results: Response rate was 94.5%. Total mean knowledge score was 14.08 ± 3.42. 87.5% accepted that early detection can improve the chance of survival. 89.2% have heard of BSE and agreed that BSE can help in early detection of breast cancer. 93.3% felt it was necessary to do BSE and 87.5% have done BSE before. 5% of nursing students felt that doing BSE was embarrassing. Only 33.3% preformed BSE regularly in a year. Conclusion: BSE functions as an effective preventive health behavior and an important component of any program for the early detection of breast cancer. Nursing students, being future health advisors, should be adequately informed about early detection methods and trained in BSE.
  13,394 1,240 6
Blackboard versus PowerPoint presentation: Students opinion in medical education
Mahalaxmi S Petimani, Prabhakar Adake
October-December 2015, 1(4):289-292
Aim: The aim was to get the students opinion regarding blackboard and PowerPoint (PPT) presentation in 1st year medical students and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both the methods. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire-based study was conducted in 1st year medical students. A total of 49 (n = 49) 1st year medical students were participated in the study. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire in English was used to collect data. A questionnaire containing 15 questions was used to assess views of students regarding blackboard and PPT teaching methods. Questionnaire forms were given after blackboard and PPT presentation on Biochemistry topic. Students were requested to fill the questionnaire forms and opine. Results: The results were analyzed by statistical analysis software version 16.0 (U.S.A) and expressed in percentages and displayed with the help of bar diagram and pie chart. In this study, blackboard teaching was the most preferred teaching aid (60.43%) compared to PPT teaching method (39.56%). However, more subject coverage (69.3%) and demonstrations of clinical conditions (69.3%) were better in PPT teaching when compared to blackboard teaching method. Conclusions: Blackboard teaching remains the best preferred teaching aid, which can be supplemented by PPT presentation for better understanding.
  13,115 1,036 -
The effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy on reducing depression in women
Mojtaba Habibi, Kobra Ghaderi, Samaneh Abedini, Nina Jamshidnejad
October-December 2016, 2(4):244-249
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) on reducing depression in head-of-family women under the protection of the State Welfare Organization of Iran. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 women who were randomly selected based on acquiring scores upper than median on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale, and were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. With a pretest and posttest control group design, subjects in the experimental group underwent 8 weekly sessions of SFBT. Both groups were evaluated using BDI-II scale in pretest and posttest, and data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: Findings showed no significant difference between the two groups in the pretest, while SFBT, significantly decreased depression scores in the intervention group. Conclusion: SFBT could be used as an intervention program in target groups and the general population of women with depression.
  12,763 1,346 1
Factors affecting physicians' behaviors in induced demand for health services
Saeed Karimi, Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Somaye Afshari
January-March 2015, 1(1):43-51
Background and Aims : One of the controversial topics in the health economy is the theory of induced demand. Physicians as experts enjoy superior knowledge and information and can use their extra knowledge for persuading patients to use unnecessary healthcare. The objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting on physicians' behavior in induced demand using the experiences of the experts in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: The research is applied a qualitative method. Semi-structured interview was used for data generation. Participants in this study were people who had been informed in this regard and had to be experienced and were known as experts. Purposive sampling was done for data saturation. Seventeen people were interviewed, and criteria such as data "reliability of the information" and "stability" were considered. The anonymity of the interviewees was preserved. The data are transcribed, categorized and then used the thematic analysis. Results : In the present study, 41 sub-themes and three main themes were extracted. The three main themes included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors, and economic factors. Each of these themes had sub-themes wh ich, for example, included the authority of physicians, competition among physicians, regulative and legal affairs, ethical factors, physician's customer focus, and physicians' tendency to maximizing profits. Conclusion : The results of the present study represent a comprehensive image of the reasons effective on physicians' behaviors in occurring induced demand. The most obvious findings of this research included structural factors, factors due to statuses and behaviors and economic factors. In the domain of structural factors; improper supervision of medical indications, expectations of physicians to activate other medical sections, physicians' independency of insurance contracts, in the domain of factors due to statuses and behaviors, physicians' authority in patients' compliance, competition among physicians, physicians' customer focus physicians' insufficient knowledge and skills, lack of commitment to ethics, and in the domain of economic factors; physician's tendency to maximizing profits, improper dependency of physicians and other health services providers are among the factors of occurring induced demand.
  9,087 919 4
Acceptance and commitment therapy on parents of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders
Shuvabrata Poddar, VK Sinha, Mukherjee Urbi
July-September 2015, 1(3):221-225
Aim: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders that hinder the normal developmental process and pose enormous challenges to the parents in terms of their role expectations and adjustment with the irreversible conditions of their child. However, little attention has been paid to their psychological needs and wellbeing. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focuses on accepting things that are beyond control and commit to changing those things, which are possible to change, by increasing the psychological flexibility of the person, thereby aiding to better realistic adjustments. The present study aims at studying the effectiveness of ACT on parents of children and adolescents with ASDs. Materials and Methods: It followed a repeated measures design, comprising five parents having children and adolescents with ASDs receiving treatment from inpatient and outpatient services of Child Guidance Clinic, Central Institute of Psychiatry, to test the effect of 10 session protocol spanned over 2-month. Assessment measures were done along state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF respectively. Baseline measures were taken prior to the treatment and follow-up measures were taken after nine treatment sessions. Results: Pre- to post-treatment improvements were found on state anxiety, depression, psychological flexibility and quality of life. Conclusion: Findings implied that ACT may have promise in helping parents better to adjust to the difficulties in rearing children diagnosed with ASDs.
  6,603 894 8
The relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment
Kamal Naghipour, Hasan Galavandi
October-December 2015, 1(4):241-245
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment among Urmia University faculty members. Methods: The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 70 faculty members of Urmia University. The data for this study were gathered through two standard questionnaires of career anchors according to Schein model and of organizational commitment according to Meyer and Allen model. Result: Findings from this study indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between career anchor components and organizational commitment components and also technical, functional competence, general managerial competence, autonomy-independence, pure challenge, and life style are significant predictors of organizational commitment. Conclusions: It is obvious from the findings that there is a positive significant relationship between career anchors and organizational commitment. Thus, each organization should pay much more attention to career anchors and organizational commitment.
  3,210 4,207 -
The effect of teacher talk style on student achievement
Firooz Mahmoodi
October-December 2016, 2(4):205-212
Aim: This study examines the effect of teacher talk and interaction on students' achievement in Tabriz high schools. Methods: This research was a descriptive and correlation study. Sixty teachers and 800 students by multistage random sampling are selected for study. For gathering data, the observation method based on Flanders interaction analysis categories was used. The validity of the instrument was approved by Flanders and other researchers. The reliability of the Flanders interaction analysis was measured by inter-observer agreement ranged from 0.85 to 1.00. Result: The results showed an independent t-test revealed no significant difference between male and female talk and teaching style. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in praises or encouragements in teaching mathematics, empirical sciences, and humanities. Conclusion: Humanities teachers encouraged students more than those of mathematics and empirical sciences. In addition, the direct teaching is negatively correlated with students' achievement.
  5,039 2,068 1
Psychological experiences of women regarding menopause
Rahele Samouei, Mahboubeh Valiani
January-March 2017, 3(1):1-5
Introduction: Menopause is one of the stages of life for women that cause a wide variety of symptoms, effects, and sometimes limitations. Therefore this study aims to describe the psychological symptoms of postmenopausal women. Method: This is a qualitative study using phenomenological method on postmenopausal women in the city of Isfahan. The sampling was at first carried out using simple sampling and later using snowball sampling method. The data gathering tool as interviews carried out in the office of obstetricians and gynecologists. Data were classified using colaizzi's seven stage data analysis method. Results: Various psychological symptoms were reported in the interviews which can be summarized as irritability, aggression, fatigue, feelings of helplessness, and uselessness. Conclusion: During the interviews, postmenopausal women mentioned a variety of psychological symptoms that can cause limitations and hardships and require suitable support and follow-up.
  6,449 580 -
The relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behaviors of the staff members in the Department of Education in Isfahan city
Asghar Zamani Pozveh, Fariba Karimi
January-March 2017, 3(1):53-60
Aim: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of the staff members in the Department of Education in Isfahan City. Methods: The study has been conducted through descriptive/correlational method. The population of this study consists of all the staff members of the Department of Education of Isfahan in the academic year 2014-2015. The population includes 517 members. Through Krejcie and Morgan sampling formula and stratified sampling method in accordance with the size, 220 members have been selected as the sample. The data have been collected using the Organizational Climate Questionnaire of Sasman and Deip and Kernodle's questionnaire of OCB. It showed that the reliability of organizational climate was 0.91, and that of OCB was 0.91. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical program package SPSS version 19. The methods of Pearson correlation, stepwise regression, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) have been used for data analysis. Results: The results of the study indicate that there is a direct and significant relationship between organizational climate, its dimensions, and OCB. Of the dimensions of organizational climate, the goals of an organization, the role, rewards, procedures, and communications within an organization are able to forecast the OCB. The results of MANOVA suggest that there is a significant difference between the respondents' viewpoints about the organizational climate according to age and OCB according to education. Conclusions: Creating positive and good organizational climate requires a culture based on common values, and employees can tolerate their work problems and their organizational citizenship behaviors are increased.
  6,335 619 -
Relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment by employees' productivity (structural equations modeling)
Samaneh Salimi, Narges Saeidian
January-March 2015, 1(1):10-16
Aim: The purpose of this study was determining causal relationships and modeling structural equations of relationships between quality of work life, psychological empowerment and employees' productivity of Municipal Administration of Zahedan. Methods: The method of the study is descriptive-causal - correlative. Statistical population of the study included administrative employees in municipality of center, district 1, 2, 3 of Zahedan in number of 257 people. Result: Findings of the study showed that the relationship of each variable, quality of work life and psychological empowerment, and employees' productivity and also relationship between quality of work life and psychological empowerment were significant (P ≥ 0.01). Discussion: Findings related to structural equations model showed that quality of work life had a direct effect on boosting employees' productivity, but its indirect effect on employees' productivity was more than its direct one which has played this role by boosting employees' psychological empowerment as an intermediate variable. Psychological empowerment also influences on employees' productivity.
  6,087 853 1
The effect of narrative therapy on resiliency of women who have referred to counseling centers in Isfahan
Mahdis Ghandehari, Leila Moosavi, Fatemeh Rasooli Jazi, Mozhgan Arefi, Soodabeh Ahmadzadeh
April-June 2018, 4(2):65-70
AIM: The aim of this study is the evaluation of the effect of narrative therapy on the resiliency of women referred to counseling centers in Isfahan. METHOD: The study was quasi-experimental, with pretest, posttest, and control group. The statistical population was women who had marital problems and had referred to counseling centers of Isfahan. At first, by the use of available sampling, three counseling centers of Isfahan were selected. Then, by available random sampling, 30% were selected and were randomly put into two groups of experiment and witness. First, all samples answered to the Connor–Davidson's resilience scale. Then, the experiment group took part in eight 2 h sessions of group narrative therapy. And finally, the posttest of both experiment and control group was performed. To evaluate the data and analyze the results of this study, the analysis of covariance was implemented. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Findings have shown that the process of narrative therapy sessions has had a significant impact on the increase of tolerance (P = 0.001). The results of this study can be implemented in increasing of women's resiliency.
  5,945 933 -
A study of the impact of smartening schools on creativity and academic achievement among sixth grade students
Fatemeh Behjatiardakani, Soheila Azizi, Yasser Rezapour
April-June 2018, 4(2):59-64
AIM: The purpose of this study was to consider the impact of the smartening schools on creativity and academic achievement among sixth grade students in Meybod. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: An experimental study with random cluster sampling method was conducted. The data collection method of the present study is semi-experimental with a pretest - posttest and control group design. The participants of the experimental group were selected from Imam Jafar Sadegh school. It is an intact class of 24 male students, studying at the sixth grade of elementary school. Further, a class of 21 male students, studying at the sixth grade of Haj Jawad Jandaghi elementary school, was selected as the control group. In this study, the experimental group had received training on smart schooling tools, while the control group using the traditional methods. Torrance's creativity questionnaire was used to measure student's creativity. In order to assess the student's progress during the course, their scores on both first and second semesters were used as pretest and posttest. The data were analyzed using SPSS Software Version 21 (IBM Corp.) through ANCOVA. RESULTS: The results revealed there have been meaningful differences between the achievement and creativity of the students who received their training through intelligent training. They showed higher degrees of achievement and creativity than those who receive their studies regularly and without intelligent training. CONCLUSION: Creativity is not just certain individuals, including thinking and mental function. However, almost all people, including children, students, workers, farmers, and housewives in school, at work, and even farm, have an average intelligence quotient in various fields of life, which can be creative performance.
  5,527 1,140 -
Investigating the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse according to educators, officials, teenagers and young adults in the city of Isfahan
Rahele Samouei, Tayebe Tayebani, Ayatollah Sohrabi, Amrollah Ebrahimi, Hamid Nasiri
April-June 2015, 1(2):154-160
Introduction: Given the current widespread nature of drug abuse worldwide, decrease in the average age of drug abuse and changing the drug abuse patterns from traditional drugs to industrial and synthetic ones and due to the negative consequences of drug abuse, investigating the subject of drug abuse has a high priority. The goal of this study is to determine the factors stimulating and inhibiting drug abuse among teenagers and young adults. Methods: This study uses descriptive field method. Subjects included 600 individuals (300 individuals selected from among educators, managers, cultural and law enforcement officials, psychologists, social workers and consultants of government and private sectors and nongovernmental organizations in the city of Isfahan and 300 teenagers and young adults). The samples were selected using nonprobability and random sampling methods and were personally interviewed by psychology experts. The results of the interviews were categorized and coded and reported using descriptive statistics. Results: The most important stimulating factors for drug abuse in the target group are need for happiness and lack of proper recreational activities, facing problems and stress due to unemployment, mental and psychological problems and shortcomings and failures. Also, the most important factors inhibiting drug abuse are sports, proper recreational activities and being employed. Results and Discussion: The results of the study showed that the views of both groups regarding drug abuse were similar and related to each other. Therefore, since prevention is better than cure, creating opportunities for entertainment, recreation and employment is of great importance.
  6,315 319 -
Content analysis of peace education as one component of global citizenship education in elementary textbooks
Meimanat Abedini Baltork, Sirus Mansoori, Yaser Azad
January-March 2015, 1(1):28-35
Peace education is now a required component of the national curriculum that must be taught by all schools. Hence, it is necessary that peace education components be included in school curricula. So this paper looked at peace education in content of primary textbooks. In other words, Main purpose of this survey was content analysis of primary school textbooks based on peace education components such as "Sense of solidarity," "sense of responsibility to others," "recognizing diversity," "loving others" "discrimination and denial of ethnic, racial or religious." The method of used in the content analysis is Entropy Shanon method based on quantitative content analysis. Unit of analysis is concepts (such as sentence, question, practice, and images) related to cited components in the elementary textbooks. The results showed that "Sense of solidarity" components have the most frequency and lowest frequency related to rejection of ethnic, racist and religious discriminations component.
  6,108 520 -
The effectiveness of group application of acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety, depression, and stress among high school female students
Mahnaz Karimi, Asghar Aghaei
April-June 2018, 4(2):71-77
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the method is based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on anxiety, depression, and perceived stress among girls (18–15 years) in Isfahan. METHODS: Semi-experimental study with pre- and post-test and follow-up with the control group. Multi-stage random cluster sampling from three training and education of 30 students with the highest scores on three scales of anxiety, depression, and stress were selected and randomly assigned into two groups (n = 15) and control group (15 subjects). Training as a group in eight sessions (one session a week for 60 min) was performed on the experimental group. Moreover, all the participants before the start of training, after training and after 45 days as a follow-up period, Lavyb and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 questionnaire (1995) was completed. To analyze the data, analysis of variance with repeated measures was used. RESULTS: The results showed that the subjects' perceived stress in the track slightly increased, but the increase was not statistically significant. Therefore, based on ACT group therapy in reducing depression, anxiety, and perceived stress and posttraining follow-up period had an impact. Moreover, perceived stress levels have increased significantly in the little track time, but was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Based on ACT group therapy on depression, anxiety and posttraining follow-up period have been reduced (P > 0.05). The results of this study, based on ACT group therapy to improve rates of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress among girl student (18–15 years) of treatment is recommended.
  5,468 891 -
The effect of emotional intelligence on academic performance of medical undergraduates
Farah Ahmed, Areeba Mehak, Sidra Ali, Anum Khan, Sania Shehzad, Qamaruddin Baloch, Iqra Abid
April-June 2017, 3(2):83-86
Aim: To determine the association between Emotional Intelligence and academic performances of medical students at undergraduate level. Background: In our field of medical education, intelligence quotient is considered as a successful interpreter of academic performance and intelligence. However, little importance has been given to EI. Our study examined the relationship between EI and academic performance or workforce of preclinical medical students (1st and 2nd year MBBS students of Jinnah Sindh Medical University). Methods: We used a prospective, cross sectional study design and measured the EI by questionnaire based on a study by Petrides and Furnham, 2006. The grade point average (GPA) of their last semester was used to analyze the academic performance. Nonprobability consecutive technique was done. Our sample size comprises of 120 students out of which 14 were males and 106 were females of 1st and 2nd year of MBBS. The structured paper-based questionnaire also included pretest demographic information which was filled by the students, after taking a verbal consent. The data were collected in the month of July 1, 2015–July 30, 2015. Results: The number of participants was 120. The response rate was 100%. The result revealed that out of 4 factors, 2 were the most significant: well-being (P = 0.005) and sociability (P = 0.01). The value of EI was significantly higher in the male than in the female students. Conclusion: Our study proved a strong relationship between academic performance in terms of higher GPA and two individual factors of EI that were well-being and sociability. Overall EI values of male students were statistically higher and significant than female students. Thus, appropriate measures should be taken to strengthen emotional well-being in medical students for better academic performances.
  5,672 522 -
Impact of cultural factors on the elderly utilization from healthcare services provided by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' Hospitals - 2014
Mahmoud Keyvanara, Saeid Karimi, Mahan Mohamadi, Soosan Bahrami
April-June 2017, 3(2):121-127
Aim: As we know, due to the undesirable structural and functional changes arise from aging, old people need more healthcare services than other groups in society. Many factors affect utilization of health services in this age group. Cultural factors can be named as the most important since they play a basic role in determining people's lifestyle and ultimately in the health protection behaviors. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigation of cultural factors, affecting old people benefit of health services in Isfahan province in 2014. Methods: This study was descriptive analytic, conducted in later 2014. The research population consisted of people aged over 60 years who had been admitted in 12 hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Two hundred seventy-five people were selected and entered into the research using random sampling method. Data gathering tool was a researcher-made questionnaire in three scopes, and finally the data analyzed at two levels of descriptive level (including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation (SD) and inferential level (including statistical tests comparing independent group means, correlation coefficient test, and multivariable regression) in SPSS 22 software. Result: The results showed that the level of utilization for people who had routine exercises and jugging was 0.3 units of SD upper than others. Meanwhile, by increasing exercise frequency, level of religious beliefs and opinions and the having a proper and healthy diet, the utilization of healthcare services decreases by −0.198, −0.150 and −0.196, respectively. In fact, 5.5% of changes in health services utilization variable are explained by the research independent variables. Conclusion: The study showed that doctors' recommendations on physical activities, reasonable increase in exercise frequency, access to rich and healthy food, and religious beliefs can affect old people's utilization of health services; but they cannot explain all variances of it. Therefore, according to complexity of health related issues, other involved variables should be identified and investigated.
  5,751 328 -
The effectiveness of emotional intelligence on job burnout mediated the self-efficacy among elementary teachers
Reza Barari, Laleh Jamshidi
July-September 2015, 1(3):212-220
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence (EI) on job burnout among primary school teachers in Babol mediated the self-efficacy (S.E.). Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study clearly based on structural equation modeling (SEM). The participants of this study were 225 primary school teachers of public schools in Babol in academic year 2014 that were selected via cluster random sampling method. Participants completed Maslach and Jackson's job burnout inventory, teacher S.E. questionnaire (by Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk,) and EI questionnaire (by Schutte,) by individual method and reliability and validity of these questionnaires was obtained. Results: Results of Pearson correlation showed that all EI, job burnout and S.E. components are mutually correlated with each other (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Implementing SEM with (partial least squares-SEM) for relationship between EI and job burnout through mediator variable S.E. tests, we found that the proposed model has a good fit and burnout is well explained by EI and S.E. Furthermore, all of the model path coefficients were significant.
  5,370 589 -
Social loafing among nurses and its relation with organizational justice
Manal Etemadi, Mohsen Ghaffari Darab, Elahe Khorasani, Fardin Moradi, Habibeh Vazirinasab
April-June 2015, 1(2):125-130
Background and Aims: Social loafing refers to individuals' tendency to exert fewer efforts when they work in a group than when they work alone. Individuals who feel the injustice in an origination are likelier to tend to this phenomenon. The present study is meant to investigate social loafing and its relation with organizational justice among nurses of Tohid Hospital of Sanandaj. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive one. The population of this study included all nurses working in the Tohid Educational and Health Center in Sanandaj City. The instrument of collecting data was a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 (IBM Company, New York, USA) and employing descriptive statistics techniques such as frequency, mean, standard deviation, and inferential ones such as Spearman, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results : On the basis of the findings of the research, among the distributive, interactional, procedural and systemic organizational justice, there is a reverse correlation between distributive component and social loafing (P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate that the mean of social loafing in females is more than that of males (P < 0.05). Further, the variable of years of experience is effective on the mean scores of individuals' loafing (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The hospital should try reduce the possibility of social loafing in order to prevent the negative effects related to loafing. One-way for attaining this aim is to highlight the importance of the job in such a way that individuals take their tasks and objectives as significant and important; further the nursing role in caring patients should be considered as outstanding.
  5,382 553 5
Learning strategies and academic success in traditional and nontraditional higher education students
Alireza Ghasemizad
January-March 2015, 1(1):7-9
Aim: This paper aimed at studying the learning strategies and effort/persistence of the traditional and nontraditional students. Method: Through cluster sampling, 245 students from four major and large Islamic Azad University branches in Iran were randomly selected, and questionnaires were distributed among them. The research method was correlation and casual-comparative. Cronbach's alpha method was used to calculate the reliability. The Item analysis and expert consensus were applied to calculate the validity of instruments. Results: The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the learning strategies of these two groups of students. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the academic success of these two groups.
  4,852 466 2
Music therapy as group singing improves Geriatric Depression Scale score and loneliness in institutionalized geriatric adults with mild depression: A randomized controlled study
Divya Mathew, Sumathy Sundar, Easwaran Subramaniam, Parin N Parmar
January-March 2017, 3(1):6-10
Aims: This study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the effect of group music therapy in the form of group singing, led by a music therapist, on depressive symptoms and loneliness in institutionalized geriatric individuals having mild depression. Settings and Design: The study was conducted as a randomized control trial at St. Mary's Home for the aged, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu. The study was conducted as a randomized control trial. Subjects and Methods: The experiment group (n = 40) received daily music therapy in the form of group singing lead by a music therapist for 3 weeks. The control group (n = 40) did not receive any specific intervention. Baseline and weekly Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) and UCLA Loneliness Scale scores were recorded in both groups. Statistical Analysis Used : Measures of Central Tendency, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon W value. Results: Statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) was seen in both the scores at the end of 3 weeks in the experiment group as compared to the control group. On intragroup comparison, both scores showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0.001) in the experiment group at the end of 3 weeks as compared to baseline but not in the control group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusions: Group singing significantly improves GDS-SF scores and loneliness in institutionalized geriatric adults having mild depression at the end of 3 weeks. Further research in this area is desirable which could contribute to the well-being of the aged population.
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Relating emotional intelligence and social competence to academic performance in high school students
Mohammad Akbaribooreng, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Asad Allah Zangouei, Masoud Ramroodi
April-June 2015, 1(2):75-79
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and social competence with academic performance of Zabol high school students in Iran. Methodology: It is a descriptive-correlational study and its statistical population consists of 9,386 high school students of Zabol of which 351 subjects were selected using Cochran's sample size determination formula and multi-stage random sampling method. Data collection instruments included both Schutt's EI questionnaire and social competence questionnaire of Illinois University. The students' first semester GPA was used as the Academic Performance indicator as well. Results: The results of data analysis showed that EI and social competence of students have a significant positive relationship with their academic performance and is able to predict their academic performance. The correlation between all the components of EI and academic performance of students was significant as well. Conclusion: Students with high EI and social competence tended to be more pro social and performed better in school. This suggests that integrating lessons with socioemotional learning in schools might improve students' performance, decrease maladaptive behavior, and increase pro social behavior. Finally, only well-designed experiments and longitudinal studies at various levels (elementary, middle and high school) will show whether EI and social competence can be learned (and at what age) and whether teaching these skills will have lasting effects.
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