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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 139-144

The relationship between the use of information and communication technology and the learning level of elementary school students


Department of Education, College of Psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran

Date of Web Publication27-Feb-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramezan Jahanian
Department of Education, College of psychology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2395-2296.152230

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  Abstract 

Aim: The purpose of this survey descriptive research is to investigate the effect of information and communication technology (ICT) in elementary students. Methods: Our target population consists of province elementary schools' teachers, include 4677 person, and our research sample group consists of 354 people, who are randomly systematic chosen based on determining sample Morgan table. The data collection tool is research made questioner. Result: The results illustrated that there is an affirmative relationship among usage of ICT and aspects of elementary students' education such as: Facilitating teaching-learning, developing learning motivation, establishing student-oriented learning, facilitating learning measurement and evaluation and improving students' thinking skill. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that teaching with the aim of information and communication technologies enhance and improve the level of learning in students.

Keywords: Elementary schools, information and communication technology, learning, students


How to cite this article:
Jahanian R. The relationship between the use of information and communication technology and the learning level of elementary school students. Int J Educ Psychol Res 2015;1:139-44

How to cite this URL:
Jahanian R. The relationship between the use of information and communication technology and the learning level of elementary school students. Int J Educ Psychol Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 18];1:139-44. Available from: http://www.ijeprjournal.org/text.asp?2015/1/2/139/152230


  Introduction Top


The introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) into the arena of education is a golden opportunity for exercising some reforms and arranging for educational innovation that could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education system. Many advanced and developed countries around the world have already taken the opportunity and while establishing essential changes and reforms in their educational systems, have continued to enjoy the progress in this field. ICT creates a structure that through promoted education quality enables the students and teachers to benefit from this technology to have access to vast learning sources, increase their learning motivation and use various types of learning.

By the arrival of ICT into the learning area, education and curriculum, the class management underwent a total change as education takes place by adopting research-core and student-centered approach. The responsibility of the teacher is no longer accumulating and conveying information; he/she rather undertakes various types of responsibilities and must be a multi-skill person. The closed, limited and centralized model of education sources and traditional learning could be changed into an open, noncentralized and unrestricted model, free from the limitations of time and place that lead to highly strategic results in education and learning system. The curriculum subjects derived from the technology could have multi-dimensional and multi-mobility nature and the developers take a process-centered approach rather than contents-centered. In the traditional view of this subject, the main approach of teacher-centered, the principle and essence are to teach human but in the modern view, the basis of education is student-centered. [1]

Many countries have paid special attention to employ ICT in their education system in order to improve the teaching-learning quality. Using this technology in educational centers has been considered as a basic necessity for the educational, social and economic reasons, which have been already approved and many governments have started making investments and main and macro planning to protect the ICT development projects in education system. [2]

Learning is one of the important foundations of education and must naturally evolve and change in the information era. By studying the existing statistics and information on the degree of ICT expansion in education system around the world, one could conclude that in many countries, including developed and developing countries, comprehensive plans have been adopted to equip schools with different types of facilities such as computer and internet systems and there has been a long time since those governments have paid particular attention to the role of information technology tools in their curriculum and spending significant amount of money in employing benefitting from suitable tools in their education systems. Innovating new educational methods, using computer in classrooms, benefitting from educational and multi-media software, windows media center on windows 7, microsoft, Microsoft is the name of Company in U.S.A, using internet and E-mail are among the modern products of using ICT. [3]

Lim and Ching have distinguished four instrumental roles of ICT and the related facilities as follows:

Information tools

There are some applications of ICT that provide large volume of information in different formats and shapes such as texts, audio, graphic or video. Multi-media encyclopedias or the information sources available on the internet are in this category.

Situation creating tools

These are devices that put students in an environment to allow them perform practical experiences. The simulated learning environments, educational games, and virtual realities are examples of this type of usage.

Constructive tools

These are devices that are used to process information, building knowledge or objectification of individual's perceptions. [4]

Communication tools

These are systems that create easy communication between the teacher and students or among students beyond physical barriers (such as space and time and time-associated obstacles), which usually exist in the classrooms.

Studies show that benefitting from current technologies such as computer and global network in the classroom environment allows students to learn faster and perform better [5] and experience more satisfaction in being in the classroom. [6]

Eslami in a research under the topic of studying the grounds of ICT development in public education of Mazandaran Province concluded that computer and equipment in our schools were in low situation, and the ICDL skills status of teachers was not in desirable condition. In addition, it showed that teachers show high enthusiasm and motivation in using ICT in education and teaching and the situation of existing educational contents was assessed to be good. [7]

Zamani and Akasheh in a research under the topic of studying the amount of achievements of high school teachers and their using ICT in schools concluded that accessibility of high school teachers to hardware equipment both in home and school was in desirable level while the amount of access in software is not much desirable. In addition, application of ICT in the three areas of education, research and communication was lower than expected level. [8]

In his researches, Hiyer has discussed following achievements in students' learning using educational applications under web environment:

Improvement in passing scores of students in regional and state tests, higher rate of appearing in classrooms, increased understanding of presented subjects by students, improving the reading habits in students with deeper attention, improvement in learners' view toward the quality and quantity of learning, better collaboration between the learners and the teacher and increasing the quality of team works of students and the effectiveness of educational technology in students' higher perspective in their educational future. By improving the range of educational perspective, the students' perception of themselves significantly increases, leading to the improvement of their self-confidence and enthusiasm in self-instruction. [9]

Montazeri in a research under topic of the effects of information technology learning in education achieved the results that employing information technology in education not only acted as a factor in improving the education quality; but also, it became a factor in changing the concepts of traditional education foundation.

Thus, the amount of importance and reliance on textbooks and subjects of each classroom, the method of assessment of teaching methods, degree of learning and method of relationship between teacher and student are all among factors that underwent changes using information technology. [10]

Hopkins in his research inquired high school principals on the best application of technology in schools and some principals replies that in some courses, technology had been used to motivate and attract students in learning and in other courses that were mostly simple, using ICT, the subjects were learned better during the school year. [11]

Wenglinski studied the effects of simulation techniques and high-level technologies on the progress of mathematics on a national sample made of 6227 fourth-grade students and 7146 eighth-grade students. His findings assessed the application of high level of technology and educational networks in educational progress of students in mathematics subject positive for both groups. In addition, the eighth-grade students were more advanced than other students for about 15 weeks. [12]

Today students are born in an audio-visual and mobile world; therefore, teachers' efforts to teach them using the methods and educational media of past would prove futile or at best, with little scores; therefore, it is essential for teachers to both have a fair knowledge on the modern educational technology and media and face it with a positive view. [13]

Laves has described the ICT application in education and mental images of students by giving following examples: Improving mental images in simulating actual and imaginary situations such as adventurous games, development of mental images using multi-media. [14]

Raznite in studying the counter effects of technologies on teaching and learning showed that employing new technologies in the classrooms had positive effects on students' perspectives and led to making changes in the teaching methods in the direction of participation, more teamwork and less lecturing by teacher in the classroom. [15]

Information and communication technology tools and using them by the students play an important role in increasing students' motivation in learning and associated activities. ICT has highly flexible capability in meeting different needs of students. ICT is used to present or provide information by employing new methods that lead to faster understanding in students. In addition, it gives better self-confidence to students to engage in the learning process. Many findings have shown that ICT improve students' enthusiasm through creating variation and help them to be actively engaged in learning, maintain their focus and enjoyment in learning and opening new paths in presenting difficult ideas. [16]

Kepel reviewed a research study, which was conducted to assess the effects of technology in learning and progress in all areas of learning and in all age group learners between 1990 and 1997 and reported the results of his analysis as follows:

  • Students in rich technology environments experienced positive effects of the environment on their educational progress in all major fields and their views on learning and self-image improved in a uniform level
  • Students in rich technology environments showed increasing progress in preschool programs via teaching with high-level technology.


With respect to the mentioned subjects, this research, aiming at studying the relationship between ICT and learning in elementary school students of Alborz Province, tries to execute and test the following hypotheses:

  • There is a relationship between benefitting from ICT and amount of students' learning in teaching-learning facilitation aspect
  • There is a relationship between benefitting from ICT and amount of students' learning in increasing the learning motivation aspect
  • There is a relationship between benefitting from ICT and amount of students' learning in a student-centered learning aspect
  • There is a relationship between benefitting from ICT and amount of students' learning in assessment and evaluation facilitation aspect
  • There is a relationship between benefitting from ICT and amount of students' learning in the thinking skills improvement and promotion aspect. [17]


Sandholtez and Dwyer in a research under topic of a view on the degree of students' appearance in classrooms, improved by technology, noted the subject of increasing teachers and students' enthusiasm in using technology for learning and discussed the followings: High enthusiasm of students in working with computer led to acceleration in learning. This enthusiasm also increased teachers' motivation in combining the information technology in the teaching-learning process. [18]


  Methods Top


The present research aims at studying the relationship between ICT and amount of learning in the elementary school students by employing descriptive method of the correlation type. The statistical society consisting of teachers of elementary schools in Alborz Province. The number of teachers was 4677, and the statistical sample of research was 354 teachers who were elected based on Morgan's sample volume table in systematic random way. The data was collected by an author-developed questionnaire, consisting 30 questions based on Lickert's scale. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by 30 experts, and the reliability of the tool was calculated using Cranach's Alfa, giving the value of 0.86. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inductive statistics. The correlation test was used to study the amount of relationship between ICT and students' learning in all different aspects.


  Result Top


  • There exists a relationship between employing ICT and amount of students' learning in teaching-learning facilitation aspect.


The data in [Table 1] show that the correlation coefficient between benefitting from ICT and students' learning in teaching-learning facilitation aspect is 0.65; in another word, the relationship between the two variables is positive and significant. In addition, the amount of effect of this coefficient between the two variables is 0.42; that is, 42% of changes related to the students' learning in teaching-learning facilitation aspect is a result of using ICT in schools. The significance level of this test; too, is 0.00. Therefore, it could be concluded that with 99% certainty, there is a positive and significant relationship between using ICT and amount of students' learning in teaching-learning facilitation aspect.
Table 1: The correlation test between ICT and student's teaching‑learning facilitation aspect

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  • There is a correlation between employing ICT and amount of students' learning in the aspect of increasing learning motivation.


The data in [Table 2] show that the correlation coefficient between benefitting from ICT and students' learning in increasing the learning motivation of students aspect is 0.62; in another word, the relationship between the two variables is positive and significant. In addition, the amount of effect of this coefficient between the two variables is 0.38; that is, 38% of changes related to the students' learning motivation increase aspect is a result of using ICT in schools. The significance level of this test; too, is 0.00. Therefore, it could be concluded that with 99%t certainty, there is a positive and significant relationship between using ICT and amount of students' learning in increasing the learning motivation aspect.
Table 2: The correlation between employing ICT and amount of student's learning in increasing the learning motivation of students

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  • There is a correlation between employing ICT and amount of students' learning in a student-centered learning aspect.


The data in [Table 3] show that the correlation coefficient between benefitting from ICT and students' learning in student-centered aspect is 0.57; in another word, the relationship between the two variables is positive and significant. In addition, the amount of effect of this coefficient between the two variables is 0.32; that is, 32% of changes related to the students' learning in student-centered learning aspect is a result of using ICT in schools. The significance level of this test; too, is 0.00. Therefore, it could be concluded that with 99% certainty, there is a positive and significant relationship between using ICT and amount of students' learning in student-centered learning aspect.
Table 3: The correlation between employing ICT and amount of student's learning in student‑centered learning aspect

Click here to view


  • There exists a relationship between employing ICT and amount of students' learning in assessment and evaluation facilitation aspect.


The data in [Table 4] show that the correlation coefficient between benefitting from ICT and students' learning in students' evaluation and assessment facilitation aspect is 0.59; in another word, the relationship between the two variables is positive and significant. In addition, the amount of effect of this coefficient between the two variables is 0.35; that is, 35% of changes related to the students' learning in students' evaluation and assessment facilitation aspect is a result of using ICT in schools. The significance level of this test; too, is 0.00. Therefore, it could be concluded that with 99% certainty, there is a positive and significant relationship between using ICT and amount of students' learning in students' assessment and evaluation facilitation aspect.
Table 4: The correlation test between ICT and facilitation of student's evaluation and assessment aspect

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  • There exists a relationship between employing ICT and amount of students' learning in improvement and promotion of students' thinking facilitation.


The data in [Table 5] show that the correlation coefficient between benefitting from ICT and students' learning in the aspect of improving and promoting thinking skills is 0.56; in another word, the relationship between the two variables is positive and significant. In addition, the amount of effect of this coefficient between the two variables is 0.31; that is, 31% of changes related to the students' learning in improving and promoting thinking skills aspect is a result of using ICT in schools. The significance level of this test; too, is 0.00. Therefore, it could be concluded that with 99% certainty, there is a positive and significant relationship between using ICT and amount of students' learning in improving and promoting thinking skills aspect.
Table 5: The correlation test between ICT and in improvement and promotion of student's thinking facilitation aspect

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  Discussion and Conclusion Top


The results of present research showed that there is positive and significant relationship between using ICT in teaching and amount of students' learning in teaching-learning facilities, increasing the learning motivation, establishing student-centered learning, facilitation of assessment and evaluation of amount of learning, and improving and promoting thinking skills. These findings are in agreement with the results of following researches: Hyier in his researches, stated that improvement of passing scores of students in regional and state examinations, increase in degree of participation in classrooms, increase in the students' understanding of the presented subjects, developing more and deeper reading habits, improvement in learners' attitudes toward the quality and quantity of learning, increase in the cooperation between learners and teachers and increase in the quality of team works of students to be the product of using ICT. [9]

Montazeri found the results that employing ICT in education not only was a factor of acceleration and facilitation of education and promoting its quality, it also acted as a factor in changes in the concepts of traditional education basis. [10] Raznite in studying the counter effects of technologies in teaching and learning showed that most new technologies in those classed had positive effects in students' views and led to changes in the teaching methods in the direction of participation, more team works and less lecturing of teacher in the classroom. [15] Hopkins in his research showed that information technology caused motivation and attraction of students for better learning. [11] Sandholtez and Dwyer showed that higher enthusiasm of students to work with computer led to faster learning; students spent more time to perform their homework and research projects using computer and worked with computer even in their free time. Therefore; ICT creates a structure through which, the quality of education is promoted and using this technology, students and teachers could find access to vast learning resources, increase their learning motivation and use different forms of learning. Participative learning based on project and autonomous learning are few examples of facilitation using ICT. [18]

 
  References Top

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